Joseph Hooker


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Hooker, Joseph,

1814–79, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Hadley, Mass. After fighting the Seminole and serving in the Mexican War, Hooker resigned from the army in 1853 and was for several years a farmer in California. At the outbreak of the Civil War he became a brigadier general of volunteers. He distinguished himself in subordinate commands in the Peninsular campaign, at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam campaign, and was made a brigadier general in the regular army in Sept., 1862. After the battle of FredericksburgFredericksburg, battle of,
in the Civil War, fought Dec. 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. In Nov., 1862, the Union general Ambrose Burnside moved his three "grand divisions" under W. B. Franklin, E. V.
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, Hooker severely criticized Ambrose BurnsideBurnside, Ambrose Everett,
1824–81, Union general in the U.S. Civil War, b. Liberty, Ind. He saw brief service in the Mexican War and remained in the army until 1853, when he entered business in Rhode Island.
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, whom he succeeded (Jan., 1863) in command of the Army of the Potomac.

In Apr., 1863, he advanced against Robert E. Lee, but in the resulting battle of ChancellorsvilleChancellorsville, battle of,
May 2–4, 1863, in the American Civil War. Late in Apr., 1863, Joseph Hooker, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, moved against Robert E.
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, he failed to justify his nickname of "Fighting Joe." Hooker followed Lee closely in the subsequent Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania, but, angered at General Halleck's refusal to send him reinforcements from Harpers Ferry, he asked on June 28, 1863, to be relieved. Hooker ably commanded reinforcements from the East in the Chattanooga campaignChattanooga campaign,
Aug.-Nov., 1863, military encounter in the American Civil War. Chattanooga, Tenn., which commanded Confederate communications between the East and the Mississippi River and was also the key to loyal E Tennessee, had been an important Union objective as
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, and in 1864 he fought in the Atlanta campaign until General Sherman passed him over as successor to John B. McPhersonMcPherson, James Birdseye,
1828–64, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Sandusky co., Ohio. After teaching (1853–54) at West Point, he worked on various engineering projects.
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.

Bibliography

See biography by W. H. Hebert (1944).

Hooker, Joseph

(1814–79) soldier; born in Hadley, Mass. He graduated from West Point (1837), served with distinction in Mexico (1846–47), and left the army in 1853 to farm in California. Recalled on the outbreak of Civil War, he led a corps at Antietam and Fredericksburg (both 1862) and in January 1863 succeeded Ambrose Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac. He had a reputation as an aggressive commander, although his nickname, "Fighting Joe," resulted from a dropped hyphen in a news dispatch (that was supposed to have read, Fighting—Joe Hooker) rather than from action in the field. (The claim that "hooker" as the term for a prostitute is derived from the campfollowers he allegedly tolerated is a completely false attribution.) Confident, efficient, and boastful, Hooker reorganized the army, improved soldiers' conditions, and promised to defeat Lee. Instead, the Confederate commander overmastered him at Chancellorsville (1863). Lincoln accepted his resignation on the eve of Gettysburg. He later held corps commands in the West under Grant and Sherman, and retired as a regular army major general in 1868.
References in periodicals archive ?
Consider, for a moment, the class of subjects that Jim Endersby's Joseph Hooker fits into: nineteenth-century, English-speaking naturalists whose lives and works illuminate not only nature but the changing natures, practices, and contexts of knowledge; not only nature but concepts of "creation" and evolutionary history; and not only nature but the blurry boundaries between "amateur" and "professional," science and belief, interests and ideas.
Also in 1863, he relieved Joseph Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac early in the Gettysburg campaign, and William S.
Joseph Hooker to replace McDowell, even though the administration already planned to have Hooker take over the Fifth Corps from Porter, whom the administration had relieved from command to face charges leveled against him for his actions during the Second Manassas campaign.
Narrator B: Union General Joseph Hooker and his men charge toward General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and the Confederates in a cornfield near Dunker Church.
The horticultural highlight of my year, however, was the trip I made to northern Sikkim in the Himalayas, following in the footsteps of plant-hunter Sir Joseph Hooker.
Both Gen Ambrose Burnside and Gen Joseph Hooker employed Lowe's balloons during the Battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, respectively, but Hooker allowed the Topographical Corps to cut Lowe's pay and reduce his prestige.
At times, he seemed overly solicitous of commanders such as George McClellan, Joseph Hooker, and Don Buell, and yet he held the divided military structure together until victory was achieved.
Our advice is to look to the past and listen to advice that Lincoln gave to Major-General Joseph Hooker, upon Hooker's taking command of the Union Army.
When Sir Joseph Hooker was collecting rhododendron seed in the Himalayas 150 years ago, he remarked that above 12,000 feet in Darjeeling, about three-quarters of all plants were rhododendrons.
Kew's transition under four potent heads, Joseph Banks, William Hooker, Joseph Hooker and William Thiselton-Dyer, is an absorbing tale of sycophantic jostling for favour among Whigs and Tories, amateurs and professionals, scientists and bureaucrats, prudent economisers and visionary expansionists.
This pupil of Joseph Hooker, at Glasgow University, went to north-west America in early 19th century as a plant collector.
British botanist Sir Joseph Hooker (1817-1911) later referred to a W.