Joseph Mallord William Turner
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Turner, Joseph Mallord William
Born Apr. 23, 1775, in London; died there Dec. 19, 1851. English painter.
Turner studied at the Royal Academy in London from 1789 to 1793. He became a member of the academy in 1802 and a professor in 1808. Beginning in the late 1790’s he adopted and elaborated the motifs of 17th-century Dutch marine paintings and those of Claude Lorrain’s and R. Wilson’s landscapes. As he turned to biblical, mythological, and historical themes, he evinced a growing tendency toward romantic fantasy, for example, in his portrayals of the dramatic struggle between the forces of nature, and for unusual effects of lighting. Beginning in the 1820’s, Turner, still preoccupied mainly with marine painting, developed a freer and more dynamic style. His works were marked by vivid contrasts of shimmering tones that merge in a harmonious light spectrum and by objects with contours that simultaneously blend and divide.
Among Turner’s major works are Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus (1828–29), The Fighting “Téméraire” Towed to Her Last Berth (1838), and Rain, Steam, and Speed (1844), all at the National Gallery in London. Shipwreck (1805, Tate Gallery, London) is one of his best-known paintings. Turner also created many watercolors, drawings, and engravings.
REFERENCESNekrasova, E. A. Temer. Moscow, 1976.
Finberg, A. J. The Life of J. M. W. Turner, 2nd ed. Oxford, 1961.
J. M. W. Turner. London, 1974..