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in a number of bourgeois states, an obligatory document in which a businessman (physical or juristic person) daily sets down the transactions of his business. The information in the journals reflects the business’s financial position.
the portion of a shaft or axle that is supported by a bearing. End and end face journals are known as pivots, and journals located in the middle of a shaft are called necks. End and neck journals may be cylindrical, conical, or in some cases spherical; end face journals may consist of an annulus with a single bearing surface or sometimes a collar with several surfaces. Conical journals permit the clearance to be adjusted in a sliding bearing, and spherical journals allow substantial angular deflections of the shaft relative to the bearing. If a journal is supported by a sliding bearing or if the journal’s surface is directly in contact with the rolling bodies of a ball or roller bearing, the surface of the journal must be very hard and have few irregularities if good wear resistance is to be achieved. Deviations from specification in the shape and dimensions of a journal have a major effect on the operation of the mechanism, and journals are consequently manufactured to a high degree of precision.