Józef Pilsudski

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Piłsudski, Józef

 

Born Dec. 5, 1867, in Zułowo, Wilno (Vilnius) Province; died May 12, 1935, in Warsaw. Polish political figure. Son of a nobleman.

Piłsudski studied in the faculty of medicine at the University of Kharkov but was expelled in 1885 for participating in student disturbances. Arrested in 1887 and charged with plotting the assassination of Alexander III, he was exiled from 1888 to 1892. He joined the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) in 1892. In 1904, after the Russo-Japanese War broke out, he went to Tokyo to arrange a cooperative effort with Japanese intelligence, which was interested in weakening the Russian rear. From 1905 to 1907, in opposition to the joint struggle of the Polish and Russian proletariat, he created terrorist combat groups. In 1906, Piłsudski helped found the nationalistic Revolutionary Faction of the PPS. Hoping for the restoration of Poland’s independence if Austria-Hungary and Germany won a military victory over Russia, he cooperated with the Austro-Hungarian general staff, with whose support he organized intelligence work and created a diversionary terrorist organization in Galicia called the Shooters.

During World War I (1914-18), Piłsudski commanded a Polish legion that fought on the side of Austria-Hungary. At the end of 1916 he was appointed chief of the war department in the “government” of the “independent Polish state” created by the Austrian and German occupation forces. Piłsudski was arrested in July 1917 as a result of a conflict with occupation authorities, but after the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany he was freed. He traveled to Warsaw, where he took part in combating the revolutionary movement.

Piłsudski was proclaimed “chief of state” (dictator) in 1918, a position he held until the end of 1922. He was named chief of state with the support of right-wing leaders of the PPS; the Polish Military Organization, which had been established by Piłsudski’s supporters; legionnaires; and like-minded persons in other parties. He dealt ruthlessly with the revolutionary movement, drew Poland into anti-Soviet intervention, and played an important role in organizing Poland’s attack on Soviet Russia in 1920. In May 1926, Piłsudski carried out a military coup; he established a sanacja regime in Poland “to restore the republic to health” and remained the de facto dictator of Poland until his death. In 1926 he became minister of war and inspector general of the armed forces; from 1926 to 1928 and again in 1930 he was also prime minister. Piłsudski concluded the Polish-German Agreement of 1934.

F. G. ZUEV

References in periodicals archive ?
There are many unique monuments, Such as: Sabers and award-winning trophies with personal dedications, Uniformed uniforms - caps, Jackets, Trousers, Shoes, Belt, Cap and souvenirs by marshal jozef pilsudski, Unique military bikes, Pennants and pennants, Badges and signs in many the case of single specimens which until now in the collection of mwp was not, The propeller from the aircraft unique in the collections and the antiques market.
The IP system, which replaced a traditional outside broadcast (OB) set-up, delivered live camera signals from the Marshal Jozef Pilsudski Stadium in Krakow, Poland, to UEFA, which was located at BT Sport's facility at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London, around 1,600km away, ready for live edit and playout.
Leaders like Jozef Pilsudski, poets such as Adam Mickiewicz and Czeslaw Milosz came from families rooted in Lithuania for centuries.
The main leadership of Polish forces was taken by Jozef Pilsudski (later to be acknowledged as the father of independent Poland), who organized volunteers from all three parts of partitioned country to form national military units, which later constituted armed force capable of securing the country's new established borders.
He admired Jozef Pilsudski but detested the dictator's minister of foreign affairs, Jozef Beck, who, according to Karski, had been unable to understand the contemporary events, lived in a world of illusions, created illusions himself, and, together with his country, became their victim.
A gear change in activities awaited us as we headed to the Marshal Jozef Pilsudski Stadium to see one of Krakow's two top football teams.
The consent for performing the study was granted by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research at Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Poland.
Since the person and the memory of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski became an integral part of the holiday's
That is one of the explanations for the miracle that was Israeli democracy -- a phenomenon that is well-nigh inexplicable, considering that almost all Israelis came from severely anti-democratic countries -- Russia of the Czar and the commissars, Morocco, Iraq and Iran of the authoritarian kings, Poland of Jozef Pilsudski and his heirs, and of course Jews and Arabs born in Ottoman and British Palestine.
The Bolsheviks thought they could advance into Central and Western Europe "over the corpse of Poland:' At the famous battle at the gates of Warsaw, called "the Miracle of the Vistula"--the revered Marshal Jozef Pilsudski turned back the Red tide.
ITALY'S strikers took it in turns to practise their finishing at the Marshal Jozef Pilsudski Stadium yesterday.
The main personages of the drama are Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the founder of the modern Polish state and its authoritarian leader (who died in 1935) and who is worshiped by some in Poland still today, and Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the Soviet secret service (who died in 1926) whose portraits were in every office of the KGB until the very collapse of the USSR.