Juárez


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Related to Juárez: Ciudad, Benito Juárez

Juárez,

officially Heroica Ciudad Juárez, city (1990 pop. 789,522) Chihuahua state, N Mexico, on the Rio Grande opposite El PasoEl Paso
, city (1990 pop. 515,342), seat of El Paso co., extreme W Tex., on the Rio Grande opposite Juárez, Mex.; inc. 1873. In a region of cattle ranches and cotton and vegetable farms (irrigated from the Elephant Butte Reservoir), the city is a port of entry and a
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, Tex. Connected with the United States by three international bridges, it is a shipping point and highway and rail terminus. It is also the commercial and processing center for the surrounding cotton-growing area. Except for the river valley, under intense cultivation southeast of the city, Juárez is hemmed in by desert. It has experienced extremely rapid population growth and has been a favored location for the placement of maquiladorasmaquiladoras
, Mexican assembly plants that manufacture finished goods for export to the United States. The maquiladoras are generally owned by non-Mexican corporations.
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, foreign-owned manufacturing plants that finish goods for sale in the United States.

Developing (1659) as the focal point for Spanish colonial expansion to the north, it was originally called El Paso del Norte and included settlements on both sides of the river, until they were split by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), which ended the Mexican WarMexican War,
1846–48, armed conflict between the United States and Mexico. Causes

While the immediate cause of the war was the U.S. annexation of Texas (Dec., 1845), other factors had disturbed peaceful relations between the two republics.
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. In 1888 the name of the Mexican town was changed to honor Benito JuárezJuárez, Benito
, 1806–72, Mexican liberal statesman and national hero. Revered by Mexicans as one of their greatest political figures, Juárez, with great moral courage and honesty, upheld the civil law and opposed the privileges of the clericals and the army.
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, who made it his capital when exiled from central Mexico. The city was captured by Pascual Orozco and Francisco Villa in the early days of the revolution in 1910. From 2008 to 2011 the city was notorious as the most deadly scene of Mexico's drug-related violence.