Judicial System

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Wikipedia.
Related to Judicial System: judicial branch

Judicial System


the judicial organs of the state, joined together in relations established by law for the administration of justice. Each link in the judicial system is constituted by all courts of the same competence.

The Soviet judicial system comprises courts of the USSR: the Supreme Court of the USSR and the military tribunals. It also comprises courts of the Union republics: the supreme courts of the Union republics, the supreme courts of the autonomous republics, the krai courts, the oblast courts, the city courts (in Moscow, Leningrad, Tashkent, and Alma-Ata), the courts of the autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs, and the raion (city) people’s courts.

The military tribunals and the common courts (from the supreme courts of the Union republics to the raion [city] people’s courts) form two independent branches, organizationally united into a single judicial system by the existence of a common higher link—the Supreme Court of the USSR, which stands atop the judicial system of the Soviet state.

The judicial system is structured on the basis of several principles. One is the unity of the judicial system; that is, there are essentially identical legal relationships between the individual links of the Soviet judicial system, both in the military tribunals and in the common courts. Another is the dependence of the judicial structure on the state structure of the USSR and the Union republics; that is, the network of judicial organs was shaped with the administrative-territorial division of the country, Union republics, and autonomous republics. Still another is that appeals can be taken into account carried only to a single appellate level; that is, a court’s judgments and decisions, before they enter into legal force, may generally be reviewed only once, in a court directly superior to the original court. Organization of the judicial organs in each Union republic falls within the competence of the higher organs of state power in that republic.

In bourgeois states, the judicial system does not usually take into account the administrative-territorial division of the country and does not rest on the principle of organizational unity. In some bourgeois states there are different types of judicial systems. In the USA, for example, there are three organizationally distinct systems of courts: federal, state, and military. In Great Britain, certain courts consider only criminal cases, and others only civil cases. There are also special courts—military, naval, and university courts—outside the general judicial system.

References in periodicals archive ?
In his turn, Klaus Decker thank the President of the Supreme Court and noted the importance of openness of the judicial system for ordinary citizens.
Synopsis: Global confidence in judicial systems and courts remained steady in 2013 at 53%.
The police have done their duty but the judicial system hasn't.
org, a TCJL website that provides information about the state's judicial system and candidates running in judicial races.
Only a determined pursuit of ethical practices can usher in a change and the Indian judicial system, as well as the bureaucracy, must discard their outmoded practices and review their purpose of governance.
According to 'Twitter Visit', an initiative which was launched by Dubai Courts General Manager Dr Saeed bin Hazeem, a monthly visit will be arranged for the members of the public who wish to get familiar with the judicial system in operation within the courts, and procedures and services rendered to the litigants.
Srinagar: Chief Justice of India Altamas Kabir has described the Indian judicial system as one of the most powerful in the world today due to the power of judicial review enjoyed by it.
In the symposium lawyer expert Ormond Teryan delivered a lecture included a number of topics related priority features of a good judicial system, judicial independence standards, the advantages of establishing high judicial boards, strengthening the constitutional guarantees of the judicial independence, and other topics related to the judicial system reform in the new constitution.
Talking to media here yesterday, Sibal underlined the need to strengthen confidence of the people in the judicial system.
TUNIS(TAP) - UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Resident Representative in Tunis Mohammed Belhocine expressed wish that the national consultation on the reform of the judicial system held by the UNDP, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Ministry of Justice, will result in an actual and comprehensive reform of justice in Tunisia.
It also called on public and political officials to exclude the judicial system from any political bickering so as not to prevent it from carrying out its duties independently.
The meeting stressed the need to follow up on issues related to the penal code and other issues that are of interest to citizens in order to realize a judicial system and authority that rise up to the current events and the coming stage.