Jugurtha

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Related to Jugurthine: Jugurtha, Massinissa

Jugurtha

(jo͞ogûr`thə), c.156–104 B.C., king of Numidia, a grandson of MasinissaMasinissa
or Massinissa
, c.238–148 B.C., king of Numidia. He succeeded (c.207 B.C.) his father as king of E Numidia. Brought up in Carthage, he fought in a Carthaginian campaign in Spain in the Second Punic War (see Punic Wars) but eventually went over (c.
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. On the death of Micipsa (118 B.C.), the royal power devolved upon his two sons and upon his adopted son Jugurtha. The latter ousted the other two heirs and united Numidia under his rule. In the process, however, some Italians were murdered, leading Rome to invade Numidia; peace was reestablished in 111 B.C. Jugurtha, on a visit to Rome to explain his acts, ordered a rival murdered. War was resumed, and the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus gained some notable successes. Under a new commander, Caius MariusMarius, Caius
, c.157 B.C.–86 B.C., Roman general. A plebeian, he became tribune (119 B.C.) and praetor (115 B.C.) and was seven times consul. He served under Scipio Africanus Minor at Numantia and under Quintus Metellus against Jugurtha.
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, the Romans continued to apply pressure on Jugurtha, who was being supported by his father-in-law, Bocchus, king of Mauretania. Jugurtha was captured (106 B.C.) when Bocchus betrayed him, and he was put to death in prison in Rome.

Jugurtha

 

Born 160 B.C.; died 104 B.C. King of Numidia from 117. Military commander and diplomat. Grandson of Masinissa.

Jugurtha was educated in Rome. In 134 and 133 he fought in the Numantian War of 143–133. After the death in 118 of his uncle, King Micipsa of Numidia, he killed one of Micipsa’s sons and forced the other son, Adherbal, to flee. Adherbal appealed to the Roman Senate for aid, but by bribing Roman senators, Jugurtha attained a partition of Numidia that favored his interests; he received the fertile, western part of the country. In 112, Jugurtha captured the Numidian capital of Cirta, whereupon he executed Adherbal and all other men in the city, including Romans and other Italians. In response the Romans launched a war against Jugurtha—the Jugurthine War—in 111.

Jugurtha was defeated in 106 and fled to his father-in-law, King Bocchus of Mauretania, who turned him over to the Romans in 105. In 104, dressed in his royal robes, Jugurtha was presented to the Romans as a prisoner in the triumph of G. Marius; he was executed in prison.

Jugurtha

died 104 bc, king of Numidia (?112--104), who waged war against the Romans (the Jugurthine War, 112--105) and was defeated and executed
References in periodicals archive ?
The writing of the play, based on Sallust's history of the Jugurthine war, expressed an intensifying interest in classical Rome during the first decade of the seventeenth century.
The Jugurthine War" in Sallust: "Catiline's Conspiracy," "The Jugurthine War, " "Histories, " trans.
Fronto reminds him that the gods do on occasion give the Romans a hard time, listing as examples of such defeat: Allia, Caudium, Cannae, Numantia and Cirta (referring to the defeat of Albinus in 109 BC, during the Jugurthine war).
A very readable source on the Jugurthine War is Sallust, a Roman politician who was a contemporary and friend of Julius Caesar.
In Sallust's second monograph, Bellum Jugurthinum(41-40; The Jugurthine War), he explores in greater detail the origins of party struggles that arose in Rome when war broke out against Jugurtha, the king of Numidia, who rebelled against Rome at the close of the 2nd century.
The Jugurthine War is twice the length, with a more complicated structure and a wider range of material, including three formal digressions.
Principal wars: Jugurthine War (112-105); Cimbri and Teutones (105-101); Social War (91-88); Civil War (88-82).
Conflict in Africa, however, was never to be completely resolved, and one African war in particular--the Jugurthine War--though relatively insignificant in terms of Roman lives and materiel lost, did incalculable long-term damage to the Roman state because it set the stage for the rise of the first Roman despots.
The Jugurthine war, which lasted about seven years, provided more drama than danger to the Roman state.
Principal wars: Jugurthine War (112-105); Cimbri and Teutones (105-101); Social War (91-88); First Mithridatic War (89-84); Roman Civil War (88-82).