Julius II

Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Julius II: Paul III

Julius II,

1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal. Innocent VIII, successor to Sixtus IV, was entirely under Cardinal della Rovere's influence, and it was in reaction to the cardinal's power that the rest of the cardinals elected (1492) his bitter enemy, Rodrigo Borgia, as Pope Alexander VIAlexander VI,
1431?–1503, pope (1492–1503), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Rodrigo de Borja or, in Italian, Rodrigo Borgia; successor of Innocent VIII. He took Borja as his surname from his mother's brother Alfonso, who was Pope Calixtus III.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Giuliano went into voluntary exile and had little to do with ecclesiastical affairs until Alexander's death (1503). Pius III succeeded for less than a month, and Giuliano succeeded him. Pope Julius showed himself first of all a warrior, and he ably completed the work, begun by his enemy Cesare Borgia, of restoring the Papal States to the church. Having joined the League of Cambrai, he was at war with Venice until 1509 and won back Ravenna, Rimini, and Faenza. He then formed (1510) the anti-French Holy LeagueHoly League,
in Italian history, alliance formed (1510–11) by Pope Julius II during the Italian Wars for the purpose of expelling Louis XII of France from Italy, thereby consolidating papal power.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The resultant struggle was a draw (see Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
..... Click the link for more information.
). In 1512 he assembled the Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
..... Click the link for more information.
, which condemned the Gallicanism of the church in France and abolished simony in the college of cardinals. Julius was a great patron of art, and Raphael (who painted his portrait), Michelangelo, and Bramante enjoyed his favor. He laid the cornerstone of St. Peter's. Worldly as Julius was, he was one of the first to suppress nepotism and to try, albeit feebly, to break the hold of corruption on Rome. He was succeeded by Leo X.

Julius II


(secular name, Giuliano della Rovere). Born Dec. 5, 1443, in Albissola; died Feb. 21, 1513, in Rome. Pope from 1503.

Julius sought to strengthen papal authority and increase the territory of the Papal States. To further these ends, he intervened in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559. In 1508 he joined the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai; he won from Venice the return of the captured cities of Romagna. In 1511 he became the head of the anti-French Holy League. He increased the activity of the Inquisition and helped broaden the trade in indulgences.

A patron of the arts, Julius invited D. Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and other architects, sculptors, and painters to Rome.

Julius II

original name Guiliano della Rovere. 1443--1513, pope (1503--13). He completed the restoration of the Papal States to the Church, began the building of St Peter's, Rome (1506), and patronized Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante
References in periodicals archive ?
This lands, known as the Papal States, were expanded during the late middle ages and Renaissance by "warrior popes" such as Julius II.
The shortest papal conclave took place in October 1503 when Giuliano della Rovere was elected as Pope Julius II, succeeding Pope Pius III it took just ten hours.
My idea is that the portrait was conceived by Michelangelo when he worked on the tomb of Pope Julius II," the historian added.
The smallest and oldest army in the world, they were founded in 1506 by Pope Julius II.
Renovatio urbis; architecture, urbanism, and ceremony in the Rome of Julius II.
Generous loans secured profitable papal contracts, and the convergence of family, city, and papal interests led Julius II to bring Bendinello Sauli into the Curia in 1503 and raise him to the Cardinalate in 1511.
That was the year in which it was published as the original of Raphael's celebrated Portrait of Pope Julius II, having been --in the words of the relevant National Gallery catalogue--'Hitherto catalogued as an early copy of what was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the most celebrated and epoch-making of Raphael's portraits.
And Michelangelo's Awakening Captive for the Tomb of Julius II also appears in the brochure as an example of another unfinished sculpture that demonstrates the artist's working techniques.
In 1508, Pope Julius II asked him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City.
states that the depiction of Zechariah is a kind of portrait of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo's patron; the portrayal of Jeremiah as deep in thought, with one arm on a knee, may have influenced Rodin's sculpture of a thinker.
The statue turned out to be an ancient Roman depiction of the horrifying death of the mythical Trojan priest Laocoon and his two sons, and on the advice of his art advisers, Pope Julius II immediately purchased it and set it up for display within the Vatican.
In 1509, Pope Julius II placed the Republic of Venice under an interdict following its refusal to give up lands claimed by the Papal States.