49) James Briscoe, "The Unfinished Revolution: The Saint-Simonians and the Social Question -- Origins of Socialist Debate in the July Monarchy
," The Consortium on Revolutionary Europe 1750-1850, Proceedings (1984), p.
By the July Monarchy
, the small-time, often moonlighting jobbers of the Old Regime had matured into the group described by the Paris Chamber of Commerce report of 1847 as "clever fellows" (hommes habiles): persons whose ambitions, lack of scruples and occasional financial success became emblematic of the rewards and excesses of the new regime of laissez-faire.
The Invisible Code, as the subtitle suggests, is one of honour in restoration and July Monarchy
Regret about the past and anxiety about the future, Kelly observes, accompanied France's political philosophers through periods of hope, doubt, and anxiety about the nation's future in the years of the Restoration, the July Monarchy
, and the Revolution of 1848.
German historical sociologist Werner Giesselmann's massive study of social protest under the July Monarchy
is a self-conscious attempt to swim against the tide of most recent research in social history.
The ineffectiveness of retired businessmen asked to monitor compliance with new restrictions on child labor soon prompted calls under both the July Monarchy
and Second Empire for a corps of paid inspectors, such as existed in England and Prussia.
The forms of charivari that had served the Demoiselles in 1829 and 1830 became useful to critics of the July Monarchy
such as Charles Phillipon and Honore Daumier, in their journals La Caricature and Le Charivari, as well as a form adopted by urban critics of deputies to the National Assembly in 1832.
For an examination of the problems which such workers could pose, see Donald Reid, "The Origins of Industrial Labor Management in France: The Case of the Decazeville Ironworks During the July Monarchy
," Business History Review 57 (Spring 1983): 1-19.
The cadastre - that extraordinary French property survey, a product of Napoleon's laws - contains a record of every fragment of property exchanged in every commune of France since the July Monarchy
5) The emphasis is on government intervention in the second half of the century; although it is perhaps misleading to characterize the public health policies of both the Restoration and July Monarchy
as laissez-faire (the anti-epidemic legislation of 1822, for example, was thoroughly authoritarian in spirit and horrified liberals), it is undoubtedly true that the Second Empire and, even more, the Third Republic saw a steady rise in the level of routine intervention and assistance, as opposed to emergency measures invoked in times of crisis.
France had to wait until the July Monarchy
in 1830 to conduct the genuine self-criticism it needed.
Doyle goes on to trace the ci-devants through the Terror, the Directory, the Napoleonic period, the Restoration, the July Monarchy
, the Second Empire on into successive Republics.