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in sports. Jumps are conventionally grouped into the following categories: (1) those that constitute the basics of a particular sport, such as parachuting or trampoline jumping;

(2) those that are independent events within a sport, for example, long jump and high jumping in track and field, diving from a springboard or high platform, ski jumping, jumping with an apparatus in sports gymnastics, and jumping in acrobatics; and

(3) those that are included as an element of certain sports, for example, jumping in artistic gymnastics, figure skating and team sports.

There are three basic groups of jumps in parachuting—jumps for touch-down accuracy, delayed jumps with protracted free falls, and combination jumps.

Trampoline jumping consists of high leaps that are performed by one person or two persons in synchronization. The leaps are combined with turns and rotations. Prior to the 1940’s, trampolining was used in training athletes, fliers, and parachutists and was featured in circus performances. Sports competitions in trampoline jumping were first held in the USA in 1947 on the initiative of G. Nissen, an acrobat. In 1964 the International Trampoline Federation was established; as of 1974 it had a membership of 20 national federations. The first world championship was held in 1964, and the first European championship in 1970. The trampoline jumpers of the USA, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Switzerland have had the greatest successes in international competition. Since the late 1960’s, trampolining has become popular in the USSR. The Federation of Trampoline Jumping of the USSR was established in 1971.

Springboard diving (1- and 3-m) and platform diving (5-, 7.5-, and 10) are aquatic sports approved by the International Swimming Federation. There are forward, backward, arm-stand, reverse, inward, and twisting dives; competitions include a series of these dives. The first European diving championship was held in 1890, and the first world championship in 1973; diving has been included in the Olympic Games since 1904. In Russia diving competitions were first held in 1913, and the first championship in the USSR was held in 1923. As of 1974 there were about 13,000 divers in the USSR, including approximately 100 masters of sports.

The following men and women have been among the world, European, and Olympic diving champions: P. Desjardins, S. Lee, R. Webster, D. Poynton, M. Gestring, P. McCormick (all from the USA), J. Capilla (Mexico), K. Dibiasi (Italy), and I. Engel (German Democratic Republic). Internationally successful Soviet divers include N. V. Krutova, T. S. Safonova, and V. A. Vasin (a champion at the 20th Olympic Games).

Ski jumping has been in the Olympic Games since 1924, and the first world championship was held in 1925. Competitions were first held in Russia in 1906, and the first championship in the USSR was held in 1926. Ski jumps are judged according to the distance and style of the jump, which implies the beauty and purity of the flight. Among world and Olympic champions are B. Ruud and T. Engan (Norway), V. Kankkonen (Finland), H. Recknagel (German Democratic Republic), J. Raska (Czechoslovakia), and V. P. Belousov and G. Iu. Napalkov (USSR).

Run-up jumping has been in track-and-field competitions since the 1860’s and in the Olympics since 1896. During the first quarter of the 20th century high, long, and triple jumping was popular. As of Jan. 1, 1974, the run-up jumping world records for men were as follows: high jump, 2.30 m (D. Stones, USA); long jump, 8.90 m (R. Beamon, USA); pole vault, 5.63 m (R. Seagren, USA); and triple jump, 17.44 m (V. D. Saneev, USSR). The world records for women were as follows: high jump, 1.95 m (Y. Blagoeva, Bulgaria), and long jump, 6.84 m (H. Rosendahl, Federal Republic of Germany). Men’s world and Olympic record holders in the high jump have included R. M. Shavlakadze and V. N. Brumel’ (USSR) and R. Fosbury (USA). I. Balas (Rumania) and R. Witschas (German Democratic Republic) are female high jumpers holding world records. In the long jump, J. Owens and R. Boston (USA) and I. Ter-Ovanesian (USSR) held world records. In pole vaulting, R. Richards (USA) and W. Nordwig (German Democratic Republic) held records. In the triple jump, C. J. Schmidt (Poland) was a world record holder. The high jump, long jump, and pole vault are all included in the track-and-field men’s decathlon, while the high jump and long jump are included in the women’s pentathlon. The high and long jumps are included in the all-Union athletic program Ready for Labor and Defense.

Jumps in gymnastics are either an element of floor exercises (exercises without apparatus) or exercises with apparatus. Jumping over a vaulting horse is one of the events in all-around competition and has been in the Olympics since 1896. Jumps are among the basic elements in artistic gymnastics. They can be straight, tuck, closed, open, ringlike, straddle, and layout.

Jumps in acrobatics (solo or with a partner) include rolls, tumbling, twists, half-twists, and somersaults.

Jumps in figure skating constitute the more difficult aspect in the free-skating section of the competition. The most common types of sequential jumps are included in many elements of figure skating. Complicated jumps are executed without twists (splits and stag jump) or with one to four turns.

Jumping on water skis is one of the elements in triple-event water skiing.

What does it mean when you dream about jumping?

To jump or leap over hurdles, even mountains, in a dream may indicate that the dreamer is experiencing great successes in waking life. The greater the leap, the greater the achievement.

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