June Days

June Days,

in French history, name usually given to the insurrection of workers in June, 1848. The working classes had played an important role in the February RevolutionFebruary Revolution,
1848, French revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Louis Philippe and established the Second Republic. General dissatisfaction resulted partly from the king's increasingly reactionary policy, carried out after 1840 by François Guizot, and partly
..... Click the link for more information.
 of 1848, but their hopes for economic and social reform were disappointed. Their increasing unrest was due to continued economic crisis and rising unemployment and to the inadequacy of the national workshops, which, although proposed by Louis BlancBlanc, Louis
, 1811–82, French socialist politician and journalist and historian. In his noted Organisation du travail (1840, tr. Organization of Work,
..... Click the link for more information.
, were never organized as he planned them. Instead of providing work, the workshops became a system of registering the unemployed for a meager dole. When a decree of June 21 abolished the workshops and required unemployed provincials to return to the provinces, the workers revolted to save their "democratic and social republic." There were four days (June 23–26) of violent fighting in the barricaded streets of Paris. General CavaignacCavaignac, Louis Eugène
, 1802–57, French general. He participated in the French conquest of Algeria and was promoted to general in 1844. After the outbreak of the February Revolution in 1848, he became governor-general of Algeria.
..... Click the link for more information.
 was given dictatorial powers and used harsh measures to suppress the insurrection. There were summary executions and more than 15,000 deportations to Algeria. The June Days further alienated the lower classes from the revolution.

Bibliography

See K. Marx, The Class Struggle in France (1850, repr. 1967); M. Agulhon, The Republican Experiment 1848–1852 (1983)

References in classic literature ?
In these long June days the milkmaids, and, indeed, most of the household, went to bed at sunset or sooner, the morning work before milking being so early and heavy at a time of full pairs.
But now, at last, on a flaming June day, she found herself happy; her tedious wait was ended; her year-worn advertisement had been answered; and not by a village applicant, no, no
But on this June day in the year of our Lord 1243, Henry so forgot himself as to very unjustly accuse De Montfort of treason in the presence of a number of the King's gentlemen.
That was exactly present to me--by which I mean the face was-- when, on the first of these occasions, at the end of a long June day, I stopped short on emerging from one of the plantations and coming into view of the house.
I don't know what your town is like - but in mine there are stalwart groups busy working away not just on sunny June days but drizzly February afternoons too.
Remembering Hazy June Days Rose tinted glasses, look through we do, Happier memories, though sometimes untrue.
ON the eastern edge of Swansea Bay on one of the many incredibly hot and humid June days we've been enjoying, I walked past serene Keng Pool with its colourful ducks and graceful swans and headed across the burrows for the old Roman road which separates this wildlife haven from Sker Beach.
Only these brave old souls know what anguish they carried in their hearts as they gathered for the - weekend's celebrations - what thoughts of fallen comrades who never grew old with them, what tortured memories of the horrors that they witnessed in those bloody June days in 1944.
No one who was there could forget those June days when the Olympic Torch wound its way through the region.
During one of Mississippi's hottest June days, I noted a bit of rowdy behavior in the nest while the mama was away seeking food.
Written in an eminently readable style, with repeated efforts to evoke the pathos of the events, the book has the familiar 1848 set pieces--the Parisian June Days, the Frankfurt National Assembly, Garibaldi's heroism in the Roman Republic and Kossuth's rallying Hungary to war against Austria--but it also includes less well known episodes, such as the great Romanian mass meeting in Blaj, or the uprisings in the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
HOT June days affect us all in different ways, and celebrities are no different.