Yet the juntas continued to be a force in many Latino communities.
Latinos were among those leaving for other strikes--in Inyo County, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, and even, ironically, Mexico itself--and many juntas in northern California ceased to function.
Although they died out as the twentieth century dawned, California's juntas patrioticas left indelible marks on Latino society and culture throughout the state.
63) Through their various activities, the juntas connected the daily lives of the second- and third-generation Latinos born in California with those of more recently arrived first-generation immigrants.
Finally, by giving average Latino citizens opportunities to exercise uncommon responsibilities, the juntas provided a laboratory for the production of Latino leadership.
54) "Las juntas patrioticas pueden hacer mucho bien aun a los mismos mejicanos que residen en este pals .
134 (10 February 1863), 1; "Han seguido organizandose juntas patrioticas en todos los pueblos," ibid.
Six juntas were organized outside of California, in Virginia City, Silver City, Gullimoque, Reese River, and Austin in Nevada, and in The Dalles in Oregon.
Los mejicanos residentes en este pals han organizado juntas patrioticas con el fin de recojer donativos para el benemerito ejercito de Oriente," vol.
For reasons as yet unclear, some groups continued to call themselves juntas patrioticas after 1863, while others called themselves "clubes patrioticos" and still others preferred "sociedades patrioticas.
Four years after Mexico won her independence from Spain, the planning and implementation of the annual celebrations of Mexican independence in Mexico City, fiestas patrias, were entrusted to a nongovernmental group called the Junta Patriotica.
Although this custom may have arrived in Alta California with the 1834 Hijar-Padres colonizing expedition, the earliest documented existence of a junta patriotica in California dates from a decade later.