He forces Qin Gui to confess to his treacherous dealings and his selfish motivation in signing a peace treaty with the Jurchen
Though occupying only a little more than a month, the siege of Kaifeng was in many respects the culmination of a long process of discussion among Song government officials and military commanders about how to oppose the pressure of the Qidan and Jurchen
powers menacing China from the north.
Nurhaci, during the late sixteenth and into the seventeenth century, organized an army, first from his own people, the Jurchen
tribes living in what is now northeast China.
The existence of a significant corpus of Mongolian loan words used to translate these terms, combined with the fact that some of them occur in Jurchen
, suggests that among the northern border peoples there may have been a kind of tradition of Lunyu interpretation which began in the twelfth century with the reign of the Jurchens
, and possibly even as early as the tenth century with the Khitans.
haeng) that a Jurchen
community (for example, ten for the Uryangkhad) or an individual could send in a year.
In fact, such a situation existed under "alien" conquest dynasties such as the Kin= Liao, Jurchen
Jin, Mongol Yuan--dynasties whose rulers defined themselves as "emperors" with universal sovereignty even when multiple competing "Sons of Heaven" coexisted--or in the Manchu Qing dynasty, whose official diplomatic discourse could accommodate (and lesser lords who ritually accepted) imperial suzerainty.
At the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), these Jurchen
tribes began to move southward, occupying regions only nominally under Ming control.
70] Undoubtedly the best-known example of a military man bearing a tattooed oath is the famous Song general Yue Fei [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1103-41), tragic and heroic subject of many plays and stories that center on his attempts to recapture northern China from the Jurchen
The senior author, a descendant of the Qing imperial family now living in Japan, is one of a very small number of specialists able to decipher the Khi-tan and Jurchen
scripts and to understand the languages recorded; the junior author has made a name for himself as one of the leading scholars of pre-Imperial Chinese history and epigraphy in his generation.
After this defeat, Korea suffered two separate Jurchen
invasions (1627, 1636).
The Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Jurchen
Jin, and Yuan dynasties (ca.
One of the main themes of the book is the ways in which these women managed the often contesting cultural norms between the Kitan and Jurchen
, on the one hand, and the Han Chinese on the other.