James Iredell

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Iredell, James

(īr`dĕl), 1751–99, American jurist, b. Lewes, England. He emigrated (1767) to North Carolina, where he entered the customs service at Edenton and was made (1774) collector for the port. He was admitted to the bar in 1771, and after the outbreak of the American Revolution he helped to organize the North Carolina court system. He became (1777) a judge and later (1779–81) was attorney general. His strong support of the proposed U.S. Constitution helped procure its adoption by North Carolina. In 1790, Iredell was made an associate justice of the newly established U.S. Supreme Court. Among his notable opinions was his dissent in Chisholm v. Georgia (1793) when the majority holding was that a state might be sued in the federal courts without its consent. The Eleventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (adopted 1798) made that view the law of the land.

Bibliography

See biography by G. J. McRee (1857, repr. 1949).

Iredell, James

(1751–99) Supreme Court justice; born in Lewes, England. He emigrated to North Carolina at age 17 and became active in the revolution against England. He served as a North Carolina judge (1777–78) and as state attorney general (1779–81). At age 38, he was the youngest of the original six U.S. Supreme Court justices when chosen by President Washington, serving from 1790–99.
References in periodicals archive ?
Looking back with the benefit of two hundred-plus years of hindsight, the assertions of Justices Wilson and Blair that the scheme was "radically inconsistent with the independence of th[e] judicial power" and of Justice Iredell that "no decision of any court of the United States can .
706, 727 (1999) ("[T]he views expressed by Hamilton, Madison, and Marshall during the ratification debates, and by Justice Iredell in his dissenting opinion in Chisholm, reflect the original understanding of the Constitution.
58) Justice Iredell provided the following definition: "[legislatures] shall not pass any ex post facto law; or, in other words, they shall not inflict a punishment for any act, which was innocent at the time it was committed; nor increase the degree of punishment previously denounced for any specific offence.
Justice Iredell agreed with his fellow judge, and further argued
88) Justice Iredell echoed Vattel, the Swiss author of the definitive
that Justice Iredell had referenced in his circuit court opinion, (112)
Justice Iredell, the lone dissenter in Chisholm, concluded that it was unnecessary to reach the constitutional question of Article III's reach in order to dispose of the case, though he pronounced himself
The quotes from this source in this Article omit the editing marks; instead, the quotes reflect the final text Justice Iredell intended, as evidenced by his edits.
During Chisholm, Justice Iredell took notes on his colleagues' opinions as they read them, implying he lacked access to any authoritative text.
20) Although the earlier action was a suit for a penalty, Justice Iredell did not hesitate in labeling it a civil suit.

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