Jutland(redirected from Jutland Peninsula)
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Jutland(jŭt`lənd), Dan. Jylland, Ger. Jütland, peninsula, c.250 mi (400 km) long and up to 110 mi (177 km) wide, N Europe, comprising continental Denmark and N Schleswig-Holstein state, Germany. It is bounded by the Skagerrak in the north, the North Sea in the west, the Kattegat and Lille Bælt in the east, and the Eider River in the south. The term usually is applied only to the Danish territory. Danish Jutland, including adjacent islands, has an area of 11,441 sq mi (29,632 sq km) and contains about half the population of Denmark. The Limfjørd strait cuts across N Jutland. A glacial ridge extending through central Jutland divides the peninsula into two sections. Western Jutland is windswept and sandy and has poor soil. Its coast is marshy, with many lagoons, and Esbjerg is the only good port. The east coast of Jutland is fertile and densely populated. Dairying and livestock raising are the main occupations of E Jutland; Aarhus and Aalborg are the chief ports. The peninsula has many lakes and is traversed by the Gudenå, Denmark's principal river. Yding Skovhøj, the highest point (568 ft/173 m) in Denmark, is in E Jutland. Sønderjylland (South Jutland) or Nordslesvig is the name applied in Denmark to the northern part of the former duchy of Schleswig, including the towns of Åbenrå, Haderslev, and Sønderborg. Jutland was known to the ancients as the Cimbric Peninsula (Lat. Chersonesus Cimbrica). In 1916, off the coast of W Jutland, British and German fleets engaged in the largest naval battle of World War I (see Jutland, battle ofJutland, battle of,
only major engagement between the British and German fleets in World War I. They met c.60 mi (100 km) west of the coast of Jutland. On May 31, 1916, a British squadron under Admiral Beatty was scouting in advance of the British main fleet, in search of the
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(Danish, Jylland), a peninsula in Europe, between the Baltic and North seas. The peninsula, which has an area of approximately 40,000 sq km, is divided politically: the larger northern part belongs to Denmark, and the southern part to the Federal Republic of Germany.
The coast facing the North Sea is level. In the southwestern part of the peninsula there is a wide belt of tidal marshes; along the coast lies a band of dunes, behind which lagoons are found. The southeastern coastline is sharply broken by bays and inlets.
The peninsula is composed primarily of limestones and clays that are covered by glacial and aqueoglacial deposits. Outwash plains and gently sloping morainic hills predominate in the west. In the east, hilly moraine topography of recent origin prevails; the maximum elevation is 173 m.
Jutland has a temperate, marine climate, with an average January temperature of approximately 0°C and an average July temperature of 15°–16°C. Annual precipitation totals 600–800 mm. There is a dense network of small rivers, the largest of which is the Gudená (Gudenaa). The Kiel Canal crosses the southern part of the peninsula. Forests of beech, oak, and planted conifers occupy 9 percent of the surface. A large part of the peninsula is used for cultivating forage grasses, grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Dairy cattle, swine, and poultry are raised, apd flatfish and eels are commercially fished. The Danish cities of Arhus and Alborg and the German city of Flensburg are located in the southern part of the peninsula.