Kabardins


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Kabardins

 

(self-designation, Adyge), a people living mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the Kabarda-Balkar ASSR. Small numbers of Kabardins live in several countries of the Near East. Their total population in the USSR is 280, 000 (1970 census). Their language (Kabarda-Cherkess) belongs to the Abkhaz-Adyg group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. Religious Kabardins are Muslims (Christianity and remnants of pagan beliefs existed among the Kabardins until the 18th century). The Kabardins and other Adyg peoples have a common ethno-genesis.

The formation of the Kabardins as a separate people dates to the 12th to 14th centuries and was associated with their movement from the west into the territory of their present homeland and with the development of feudal relations among them. The ancient ties between the Adygs, including the Kabardins, and the Russians resulted in the incorporation of the Kabardins into Russia in 1557. The chief occupations of the Kabardins before the October Revolution were farming, livestock breeding, and handicrafts (woodworking, gunmaking, forging, saddle-making, weaving, felt- and jewelry-making, and gold embroidery).

During the years of Soviet power the backward farming of the Kabardins was transformed into large-scale, diversified, highly mechanized kolkhoz and sovkhoz production. Machine building, metallurgy, mining, electrical engineering, and the food industry were created in the republic. Great achievements were made in culture, science, literature and art; a national intelligentsia emerged.

REFERENCES

Narody Kavkaza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. (Bibliography.)
Istoriia Kabardino-Balkarskoi ASSR, vol. 1–2. Moscow, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
Total of members in cultural societies of ethnic minorities in 2008 Ethnic group Total of members Total of ethnic group * Armenians 163 1,444 Azeris N/A 880 Bashkirs N/A 152 Byelorussians 129 17,241 Chuvashs 106 495 Germans 950 1,870 Jews 2,707 2,145 Georgians 38 430 Kabardins 35 14 Koreans 88 169 Latvians N/A 2,330 Lithuanians 260 2,116 Maris N/A 245 Moldovans N/A 645 Mordvins 34 562 Ossetians 20 116 Tatars 166 2,582 Turkmens 8 36 Udmurts 35 241 Ukrainians 1,572 29,012 Uzbeks 10 132 TOTAL 6,321 59,954 * The total of the ethnic group as registered by the Population Census 2000 Source: Pirgop 2008, Statistics Estonia.
In Kabardino-Balkaria, ethnic Kabardins (or Circassians) account for a majority of the republic's population--57, 2 %, or 492 000 people.
Notwithstanding the fact that the Cherkess and Kabardins are closely related Circassian peoples living in the north of these republics, and the Karachay and Balkars are Turkic people living in the south, two ethnically divided republics, Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria, were created as part of the "divide and rule" policy of the Soviet regime.
The Adig nationalist ideology is also diffused particularly among the younger Adig generation through a number ethnic organizations (the Circassian Congress in Adyghea; the Kabardin Congress, The Independent Public Research Center, and the Public Human Rights Center in Kabardino-Balkaria).
After Putin became President, the International Circassian Association was gradually taken over by the pro-Moscow functionaries of the ruling Kabardin elites.
The same might be said of Kabardino-Balkaria, where those of Kabardin ethnicity form the ruling group, and Kabardins are also a major recruitment pool for rebels.
Seven percent of the respondents said they like Europeans (Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, and Spaniards), four percent said they like people with origins in the Caucasus (Adygs, Georgians, Kabardins, etc.
Variations of the adat are practiced by Chechens, the Karachay, the Adygay, and the Kabardins.