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Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh,

constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 329,000), c.29,400 sq mi (76,150 sq km), SE European Russia, on the Caspian Sea. Elista is the capital.

Land and People

Lying mostly in the vast depression of the N Caspian lowland, Kalmykia is largely a steppe and desert area. There are salt lakes but no permanent waterways. Stock raising (horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and some pigs and camels) is by far the leading economic activity, and fishing is important. Irrigation has made limited agriculture possible; winter wheat, corn, and fodder crops are grown. Industry revolves primarily around the processing of agricultural products, fish, and minerals. The population is primarily Kalmyk (45%) and Russian (37%). Buddhism and Orthodox Christianity are the main official religions. The republic has a 130-member parliament.


A seminomadic branch of the Oirat Mongols, the Kalmyks migrated from Chinese Turkistan to the steppe W of the Volga's mouth in the mid-17th cent. They became allies of the Russians and were charged by Peter I with guarding the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire. Under Catherine II, however, the Kalmyks became vassals. In 1771 about 300,000 Kalmyks E of the Volga set out to return to China but were decimated en route by Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz attacks. The Kalmyks west of the Volga remained in Russia, where they retained their Lamaist Buddhist religion and their seminomadic life. The word Kalmyk in Turkish means "remnant," referring to those who stayed behind.

The Kalmyk Autonomous Region was established in 1920; it became an autonomous republic in 1936. During World War II, Kalmyk units fought the Russians in collaboration with the Germans. As a result, the people of Kalmykia (some 170,000 individuals) were deported to Siberia in 1943, and their republic was dissolved. In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev denounced the deportation as a Stalinist crime, and the following year about 6,000 Kalmyks were returned. The Kalmyk Autonomous SSR was officially reestablished in 1958. The republic was a signatory, under the name Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh, to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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). The Kalmyks sought independence in the early 1990s but agreed to abandon separatist aims in 1994.

References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, Kalmykia is the only region in the Southern Federal District and SFKO, where there are devices "LPG-polus" and " Surgitron" for the treatment of venous diseases, benign skin lesions and hemorrhoids.
Comparative analysis of the Kalmyk breed of calves in Kalmykia and in the Orenburg region was performed.
A Southern Federal District was formed from somewhat more stable areas, including the Astrakhan, Volgograd, and Rostov Regions, the Adygea and Kalmykia Republics, and the Krasnodar Kray.
He was born in 1986 in Kalmykia, at the time an autonomous Soviet republic within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic.
The two brothers accused of plotting the attack that killed three and wounded scores are Chechen Muslims, who grew up in the Kalmykia region of Russia and later immigrated to the US.
Segun algunos datos, el hermano menor Dzhokhar nacio en la republica centroasiatica de Kirguistan y el hermano mayor Tamerlan en la Republica de Kalmykia que es parte de Rusia, aunque los medios de informacion los llaman chechenios.
The mother and farther met in Elista, provincial capital of the Kalmykia region, and wandered throughout Central Asia, enduring prejudice as Chechens, before obtaining refugee status in the United States, where their children pursued education, sporting and other opportunities in the diverse, progressive community of Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The main ones took place in February and March 2003; another one, to Russia's Republics of Kalmykia and Adygeia, occurred between March 27 and April 13, 2004.
Prince Mohammed bin Turki bin Saud Al-Kabeer and Prince Saud Bin Bader Bin Mohammed Bin Abdulrahman Al-Saud took part in a falconry demo in Russia's Republic of Kalmykia, near the Caspian Sea.
The company of the former President of the Republic of Kalmykia and President of the World Chess Federation bought the 47.
PV-Bank was controlled by the former senator of the Kalmykia republic, Igor Provkin.
4 million live in China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and some 500,000 live in Russia, primarily in Buryatia and Kalmykia.