an archaeological culture of ancient Khwarazm dating from the fourth century b. c. to the first century a. d. and belonging to the period of developed slave-owning. Irrigation farming was the basis of the economy. Pottery-making reached a high degree of development. Vessels were distinguished by a diversity and perfection of form and were either coated with red engobe or painted. Many terra-cotta statuettes have been discovered. A decline in the quality of pottery between the end of the second century b. c. and the first century a. d. (associated with the cultural influence of the Sakian steppe tribes on the periphery of Khwarazm) makes it possible to delineate the period known as late Kangyu. Kangyu construction technique was typified by the use of unfired bricks and vaulted spans. Written remains based on the Aramaic alphabet have been discovered. The Kangyu religion was similar to the cults of Avesta. Typical remains include the Koi-Krylgan-Kala and Dzhanbas-Kala.
REFERENCESTolstov, S. P. Po drevnim deVtam Oksa i laksarta. Moscow, 1962.
Vorob’eva, M. G. “Keramika Khorezma antichnogo perioda.” In Tr. Khorezmskoi arkheologo-etnograficheskoi ekspeditsii, vol. 4. Moscow, 1959.
“Koi-Krylgan-Kala—pamiatnik kuftury drevnego Khorezma IV v. do n. e. -IV v. n. e.” In Tr. Khorezmskoi arkheologo-etnograficheskoi ekspeditsii, vol. 5. Moscow, 1967.
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