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Immanuel . 1724--1804, German idealist philosopher. He sought to determine the limits of man's knowledge in Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and propounded his system of ethics as guided by the categorical imperative in Critique of Practical Reason (1788)



an urban-type settlement, administrative center of Kant Raion, Kirghiz SSR. Situated in the Chu Valley. Kant has a railroad station 20 km east of the city of Frunze. Population, 22,500 (1971). A cement and slate combine and sugar and overhaul-machinery plants are there.



(from Latin cantus, “singing”), a type of many-voiced song dealing with everyday events prevalent in Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia in the 17th and 18th centuries. Initially kanty were based on religious texts and thus were confined to monasteries and clerical circles.

The poetic style of the kant is derived from literature and not from the folk song. In the 17th century texts by S. Polotskii, E. Slavinetskii, D. Rostovskii, and other representatives of syllabic poetry, were set to music to create kanty. The texts and melodies existed in many variants; they were recorded in manuscript collections that were widely disseminated. The musical style of the kant is characterized by three-voice exposition with parallel movement of the upper voices and a common-time strophic form. They were performed a cappella by an ensemble of singers or a chorus. Their intonational structure represents a fusion of elements of the znamennyi chant, Russian and Ukrainian folk songs, and Polish melodic systems.

Kanty with patriotic, domestic, and romantic-lyrical themes appeared in the 18th century; salutatory and panegyrical kanty with fanfare-like melodic phrases, the grand rhythms of the polonaise, and exultant roulades were typical of the Petrine era. The kant became the favorite form of music of the urban strata of the population. The lyrical kanty incorporated elements from popular dance forms, primarily the minuet. While texts by V. K. Trediakovskii, M. V. Lomonosov, and A. P. Sumarokov are known, the authors and composers of most kanty remain anonymous.


Findeizen, N. F. Ocherki po istorii muzyki v Rossii, vols. 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1928–29.
Livanova, T. N. Russkaia muzykaVnaia kuVtura XVIII veka …, vol. 1. Moscow, 1952.
Pozdneev, A. V. “Rukopisnye pesenniki XVII-XVIII vekov.” Uch. zapiski Moskovskogo zaochnogo ped. in-ta, 1958, vol. 1.
Keldysh, Iu. V. Russkaia muzyka XVIII veka. Moscow, 1965.
Keldysh, Iu. V. “Ob istoricheskikh korniakh kanta.” In the collection Musica antiqua Europae Orientalis, vol. 2. Bydgoszcz, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
Heidegger's Being and Time marks the "Transition" (chapter 5) between the Kantian Paradigm and the "Heideggerian Paradigm" that results from the latter's later works (chapter 6).
This paper constitutes a critical examination of Parfit's attempt to reconcile Kantian contractualism with consequentialism, which disputes his contention that the contracting parties would lack decisive reasons to choose principles that ground prohibitions against harming of the sort to which nonconsequentialists have been attracted.
For its impressive examination of the life-determining moral and ethical dilemmas that we face every day, I strongly recommend Kantian Thinking about Military Ethics.
The fourth chapter, "Justificatory Liberalism: Impartiality and Reasonableness," which is the most satisfactory and challenging part, examines Kantian and Neo-Kantian perspectives on interpersonal conflict resolution.
s talent for intuiting the subtle contours of Kant's moral philosophy justifies her inclusion among the Kantian scholars her work engages, including Onora O'Neill, Ralph Wood, and Henry Allison.
3) Now, this realist definition of science and worldview will be problematic from within the perspective of the famous Kantian distinction, even demarcation, between noumena and phenomena.
Beyond identifying Coleridge's treatment of Kantian philosophy as a predominant humour upon which to hang its characterization of Mr.
For Thomas, the notion that humans are evil by nature, which derives from a Kantian conception of persons, is essentially wrong, as indeed are the standard concepts of types of evil disposition.
With this retreat from the Kantian exodus, literature itself surrendered its freedom, becoming "a part of the machine of power, proceeding from it and--in turn--absorbed by it.
Alan Donagan is the most classically Kantian of the authors assembled here.
Thomas Hill argues that exceptions to principles like "Don't kill humans" and "Avoid endangering innocent lives" are reconcilable with a Kantian respect for humanity in every person.
95--As its title implies, Kate Moran's Community and Progress in Kant's Moral Philosophy aims to overturn the longstanding commonplace that Kantian morality is individualistic in character and therefore incapable of providing us with useful insight or guidance regarding social praxis.