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Immanuel . 1724--1804, German idealist philosopher. He sought to determine the limits of man's knowledge in Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and propounded his system of ethics as guided by the categorical imperative in Critique of Practical Reason (1788)



an urban-type settlement, administrative center of Kant Raion, Kirghiz SSR. Situated in the Chu Valley. Kant has a railroad station 20 km east of the city of Frunze. Population, 22,500 (1971). A cement and slate combine and sugar and overhaul-machinery plants are there.



(from Latin cantus, “singing”), a type of many-voiced song dealing with everyday events prevalent in Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia in the 17th and 18th centuries. Initially kanty were based on religious texts and thus were confined to monasteries and clerical circles.

The poetic style of the kant is derived from literature and not from the folk song. In the 17th century texts by S. Polotskii, E. Slavinetskii, D. Rostovskii, and other representatives of syllabic poetry, were set to music to create kanty. The texts and melodies existed in many variants; they were recorded in manuscript collections that were widely disseminated. The musical style of the kant is characterized by three-voice exposition with parallel movement of the upper voices and a common-time strophic form. They were performed a cappella by an ensemble of singers or a chorus. Their intonational structure represents a fusion of elements of the znamennyi chant, Russian and Ukrainian folk songs, and Polish melodic systems.

Kanty with patriotic, domestic, and romantic-lyrical themes appeared in the 18th century; salutatory and panegyrical kanty with fanfare-like melodic phrases, the grand rhythms of the polonaise, and exultant roulades were typical of the Petrine era. The kant became the favorite form of music of the urban strata of the population. The lyrical kanty incorporated elements from popular dance forms, primarily the minuet. While texts by V. K. Trediakovskii, M. V. Lomonosov, and A. P. Sumarokov are known, the authors and composers of most kanty remain anonymous.


Findeizen, N. F. Ocherki po istorii muzyki v Rossii, vols. 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1928–29.
Livanova, T. N. Russkaia muzykaVnaia kuVtura XVIII veka …, vol. 1. Moscow, 1952.
Pozdneev, A. V. “Rukopisnye pesenniki XVII-XVIII vekov.” Uch. zapiski Moskovskogo zaochnogo ped. in-ta, 1958, vol. 1.
Keldysh, Iu. V. Russkaia muzyka XVIII veka. Moscow, 1965.
Keldysh, Iu. V. “Ob istoricheskikh korniakh kanta.” In the collection Musica antiqua Europae Orientalis, vol. 2. Bydgoszcz, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
The authors advocate a broadly Kantian position on these three issues as part of a critical response to a prevalent strain of Leibnizian rationalism in contemporary cosmology.
Having overcome the ordered space of representation of Classical discourse, Western modernity finds itself trapped in a Kantian fold, a transcendental illusionism centered on "anthropology as an analytic of man".
Together with extensive and fresh critique of modern moral philosophies, the book provides deep and adequate critique of Kantian philosophy.
s talent for intuiting the subtle contours of Kant's moral philosophy justifies her inclusion among the Kantian scholars her work engages, including Onora O'Neill, Ralph Wood, and Henry Allison.
Similarly, Clement Greenberg's formalism is also notably Kantian.
Instead, he abruptly brings in the Kantian conception of a priori knowledge (i.
Beyond identifying Coleridge's treatment of Kantian philosophy as a predominant humour upon which to hang its characterization of Mr.
I don't myself wish to take a stand on whether the New Kantian reading is exegetically correct; it suffices for present purposes that it has proven itself interesting, plausible, and powerful enough to have moved Kantian moral philosophy back from the marginalized position it occupied a little over a quarter-century ago to the center of contemporary ethics.
Judis argues in a Kantian manner, "To put ourselves above the law of nations is to encourage our own tendencies, as well as those of other countries, toward lawlessness.
Part 2 portrays the historical fate of perfect-being theology under the Kantian critique.
In the end, Birg rests content with the Kantian dictum that one's reproductive behaviour should take a form that all could adopt as a rule.