Kara-Kalpak


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Kara-Kalpak

 

the language of the Kara-Kalpaks, the main population of the Kara-Kalpak ASSR; Kara-Kalpaks also live in Khorezm and Fergana oblasts of the Uzbek SSR, Tashauz Oblast of the Turkmen SSR, the Kazakh SSR, and Afghanistan. Kara-Kalpak is spoken by 228, 000 persons (1970 census). It belongs to the Kipchak group of Turkic languages. The principal dialects are northeastern and southwestern.

Kara-Kalpak is grouped with Nogai and Kazakh because of the characteristic replacement of Common Turkic č and š by Kara-Kalpak sh and s, respectively (Kara-Kalpak kash-, “to run away,” instead of Common Turkic kač-, and bas, “head,” instead of baš). The Kara-Kalpak literary language formed after the Great October Socialist Revoltion. The Kara-Kalpak writing system was based on the Arabic alphabet until 1928, on the Roman alphabet from 1928 to 1940, and on the Russian alphabet since 1940.

REFERENCES

Malov, S. E. Zametki o karakalpakskom iazyke. Nukus, 1966.
Baskakov, N. A. Karakalpakskii iazyk, vol. 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951–52.
Ubaydullaev, K. Häzirgi zaman qaraqalpaq tili: Fonetika. Nukus, 1965.
Berdimuratov, Ye. Häzirgi zaman qaraqalpaq tilining leksikologiyäsï Nukus, 1968.
Karakalpaksko-russkii slovar’ Edited by N. A. Baskakov. Moscow, 1958.
Russko-karakalpakskii slovar’ Edited by N. A. Baskakov. Moscow, 1967.
Menges, K. Qaraqalpaq Grammar. Vol. 1: Phonology. New York, 1947.