Karelia


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Karelia

(kərē`lēə), constituent republic (1990 pop. 800,000), 66,409 sq mi (172,300 sq km), NW European Russia, extending from the Finnish border in the west to the White Sea in the east and from the Kola Peninsula in the north to Lakes Ladoga and Onega (Europe's largest freshwater lakes) in the south. PetrozavodskPetrozavodsk
, city (1989 pop. 269,500), capital of Karelia, NW European Russia, a port on Lake Onega. It produces lumbering equipment and has shipyards, fish canneries, sawmills, and wood plants. Novgorodians worked the nearby iron deposits in the Middle Ages.
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 is the capital. A glaciated plateau, Karelia is covered by over 60,000 lakes and by coniferous forests; fishing and lumbering are major industries. Agriculture, generally hampered by cold climate and poor soil, is possible only in the south, where some grains, potatoes, fodder grasses, and vegetables are grown; dairy farming and livestock raising are also carried on. Karelia has valuable deposits of iron ore, magnetite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, marble, and pyrite. Power for industry is supplied by the republic's many short, rapid rivers. Besides lumbering and related industries, Karelia has shipbuilding and repair yards, food-processing plants, and factories that produce furniture, aluminum, building materials, and textiles. The republic is crossed by the Murmansk RR and by the Baltic–White Sea Canal, which is both commercially and strategically important. Russians and Ukrainians constitute a majority of the population, the rest of which consists mainly of Karelians, Finns, and Sami (Lapps), who are very closely related and have an identical written language. The Karelians, a major division of the Finns, were first mentioned in the 9th cent. and formed a strong medieval state. Karelia, properly speaking the region N and E of Lake Onega, was conquered in the 12th–13th cent. by the Swedes, who took the west, and by Novgorod, which took the east. The eastern part was taken from Russia by Sweden in 1617 but restored in 1721 by the Treaty of Nystad. The western part shared the history of Finland until 1940. It was from oral traditions among the Karelians that the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, was compiled in the 19th cent. by Elias LönnrotLönnrot, Elias
, 1802–84, Finnish philologist, compiler of the Kalevala. Although he was trained as a physician, he spent his life, after 1828, traveling through Finland, Lapland, and NW Russia, collecting fragments of the Kalevala from the rune singers.
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. The Karelian area of the Russian Empire was economically backward and was often a place of exile for political prisoners. In 1920 an autonomous oblast, known as the Karelian Workers' Commune, was set up in E Karelia; in 1923 it was made into the Karelian Autonomous SSR, which, after the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939–40, incorporated most of the territory ceded by Finland to the USSR. In Mar., 1940, the region's status was raised to that of a constituent republic, called the Karelo-Finnish SSR. During World War II, the Finns (allies of the Axis powers) occupied most of Karelia, but it was returned to the USSR in 1944. Karelia reverted to the status of an autonomous republic in 1956. It was a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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).

Karelia

1. a region of NE Europe comprising areas of both Finland and Russia. Following the Russo-Finnish War (1939--40) a large part of what had been Finnish Karelia was annexed by the former Soviet Union; together with the part of Karelia which already belonged to Russia at that time, it corresponds roughly to the modern Karelian Republic in Russia
2. another name for the Karelian Republic
References in periodicals archive ?
The evidence from Russian Karelia does not support the concept that increased exposure to HDM in early life is associated with the increased risk of asthma and related symptoms later in life," the authors write.
At least 10 children have been dead in the Karelia incident and three remain missing, police reported.
Though there are some real points of disagreement among those who have worked on this topic, Golubey and Takala have treated the difference perspectives with balance and provide the most substantial treatment of North American Finnish immigration to Karelia to date.
Several books, articles, and films have emerged in recent decades, but most of them reflect the geopolitical, linguistic, and cultural divisions that were evident in Karelia in the 1930s when Finns, Russians, Karelians, Canadians, Americans, and others came together to construct a proletarian utopia.
Although the geographical distance from America to Karelia was large one, the mental proximity of Karelia's leadership and American Finns, to say nothing of well-organised transportation, helped shrink this distance.
Only about 10 percent of old growth forests remain in Karelia, says Olga Ilina, head of the forest department at SPOK, the Karelia Regional Nature Conservancy.
In any case, East Karelia was never politically under Finnish rule, except for the short wartime occupation period from 1941 to 1944, and even then it was not formally annexed to Finland.
Perlos has also signed an agreement with Joensuun Kauppa ja Kone Ltd on the sale of its land and property located in Joensuu, North Karelia.
The Greek manufacturer, which already has a presence in the UK Slims market, will be taking on the likes of Imperial Tobacco's Lambert & Butler and Gallaher's Mayfair cut-price king size offerings as it launches Karelia Blue and White variants.
Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial la mayor parte de la Republica Socialista Sovietica de Karelia fue ocupada por las tropas de la Alemania nazi y de Finlandia.