Karl Landsteiner


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

Landsteiner, Karl

(kärl länt`shtīnər), 1868–1943, American medical research worker, b. Vienna, M.D. Univ. of Vienna, 1891. In 1922 he came to the United States to join the staff of the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller Univ.). He later became a U.S. citizen. For his discovery of human blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
..... Click the link for more information.
 he won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. As a result of his research in immunology and the chemistry of antigens and serological reactions, he made valuable contributions in hemolysis and in methods of studying poliomyelitis. In 1940 he identified, in collaboration with A. S. Wiener, the Rh factorRh factor,
protein substance present in the red blood cells of most people, capable of inducing intense antigenic reactions. The Rh, or rhesus, factor was discovered in 1940 by K. Landsteiner and A. S.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Landsteiner, Karl

 

Born June 14, 1868, in Baden (near Vienna); died June 26, 1943, in New York. Austrian immunologist.

Landsteiner graduated from the medical school of the University of Vienna in 1891. In 1922 he became a professor of pathology and bacteriology at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York.

Landsteiner was the founder of immunohematology. In 1900, together with J. Jansky, he discovered blood groups in man. He discovered the Rh factor with A. Wiener in 1940. With E. Popper, he proved the infectious nature of poliomyelitis. Land-steiner’s major works dealt with immunology and immu-nochemistry. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930.

WORKS

Die Spezifizitä t der serologischen Reaktionen. Berlin, 1933. (Bibliography.)

REFERENCE

Speiser, P. Karl Landsteiner: Entdecker der Blutgruppen. Vienna [1961].

Landsteiner, Karl

(1868–1943) immunologist; born in Vienna, Austria. He was a microbiologist and immunologist in Europe (1891–1922). He discovered the four basic human blood groups—A, B, O, and AB (1900). He also designed (with Julius Donath) the Donath-Landsteiner test for the red cell disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (1904), developed darkfield microscopy for the diagnosis of syphilis (1905–06), proposed a viral origin for poliomyelitis (1909–12), and demonstrated the existence of haptens, small-molecular-weight antigens conjugated to a larger protein carrier (1918–20). In 1922 he came to the U.S.A. to the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University) (1922–39), where he and Philip Levine discovered the blood factors M, N, and P. For his blood group research, Landsteiner won the 1930 Nobel Prize in physiology. In 1940, he and Alexander Wiener discovered the rhesus (Rh) factor in human blood and developed serological tests necessary to avoid Rh-mediated transfusion reactions or neonatal illness. From 1930–32, Landsteiner propagated the typhus organism in living cultures, and, remaining active after retirement, demonstrated that drug allergy is an immunological process (1935–41).
References in periodicals archive ?
Como una de las estrategias de la OMS para captar donantes voluntarios se creo el Dia Mundial del Donante de Sangre, el dia 14 de junio, esta fecha fue elegida porque es el dia del nacimiento de Karl Landsteiner, descubridor del sistema de grupos sanguineos ABO.
He was forty-eight years old when they married, and in April 1917, the couple's only child, Ernst Karl Landsteiner was born.
In 2002, he received the Karl Landsteiner Memorial Award by the American Association of Blood Banks for his research in the regulation and use of stem and progenitor cells.
World Blood Donor Day is celebrated every year on the day of birthday anniversary of Karl Landsteiner on 14 June in 1868.
Its causative agent, poliovirus, was identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner.
According to the WBDD website the June 14 event is not intended to replace events such as national Blood Donor Days, but provides a special opportunity for a united, global celebration on a day that has particular significance: the birthday of Karl Landsteiner, the Nobel prize winner who discovered the ABO blood group system.
The date has been specifically chosen to commemorate the birth of Viennese scientist Karl Landsteiner, who won the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, after discovering the ground-breaking ABO blood-group system, which is used all over the globe today.
This is the birthdate of Karl Landsteiner, who discovered the ABO blood group system.
IN the USA in 1901, Austrian-born immunologist Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO system, made up of four groups - A, B, AB, and O - into which all blood can be classified.
Scientist Dr Karl Landsteiner discovered that there were three different blood groups, which explained why people reacted differently to blood transfusions.
In 1900, the Viennese pathologist Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) discovered the concept of the human blood types and the following year, described the ABO blood group.