Karl Ritter

Ritter, Karl

 

Born Aug. 7, 1779, in Quedlinburg; died Sept. 28, 1859, in Berlin. German geographer. Professor at the University of Berlin from 1820. Member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences from 1822.

Ritter was the author of the vast work Erdkunde (Geography), which constituted an attempt to integrate materials on individual regions of the earth; 19 volumes, devoted to Asia and Africa, were published during his lifetime. Erdkunde (Ritter introduced the term in geography) defined geography as an “explanatory” science, and it contained a delineation and description of natural regions based on natural, primarily orographic, characteristics.

In Ritter’s view, the object of geography is to learn about relationships between different forms of matter on the earth’s surface and to study individual geographic areas. Using the comparative method, Ritter attempted to classify and explain many natural phenomena and came very close to the concept of landscape, which he considered as an indivisible unit. In his interpretation of the interrelations between nature and the elements of civilization and culture, he followed geographic determinism. Many of the positions he took in his works found their support in idealist teleology. Ritter attempted to prove that nature has a determining influence on the fortunes of man, which promoted the development of geopolitics. His ideas in many ways shaped the development of geographic thought in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

A mountain range in the Nan Shan system was named in honor of Ritter (seeDAKEN-DABAN).

WORKS

Die Erdkunde im Verhältniss zur Natur und zur Geschichte der Menschen, vols. 1-19. Berlin, 1822-59.
Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleichenden Geographie. Berlin, 1852.
Geschichte der Erdkunde und der Entdeckungen. Berlin, 1861.
In Russian translation:
Zemlevedenie Azii, parts 1-5. St. Petersburg, 1856-79. (Translated and supplemented by P. P. Semenov.)
Obshchee zemlevedenie. Moscow, 1864.

A. IU. RETEIUM

References in periodicals archive ?
Karl Ritter von Frisch, the Austro-German biologist best known for his work on the senses and communication of honeybees during the early 1930s, was interested in the question of whether fish can hear.
Em 2009, completam 150 anos da morte de Karl Ritter, historiador de formacao e geografo por sua ciencia, cujo trouxe inumeras contribuicoes para a evolucao do pensamento geografico, das raizes do determinismo alemao para uma antropogeografia idealista, com concepcoes romAnticas, organicistas e positivistas, mesclou entre a objetividade dos seus estudos com as questoes subjetivas e teleologicas que circundam a relacao homem-natureza.
Compreender as bases teorico-metodologicas de Karl Ritter e decifrar a multiplicidade de percepcoes acerca da relacao homem-natureza, concentrar esforcos para entender o principio de temas e abordagens na Geografia Moderna.
Nesta secao do artigo, traremos algumas referencias sobre a biografia de Karl Ritter (Foto 1), nascido na Alemanha (Quedlinburg, entao pertencente a Prussia) em sete de agosto de 1779, filho de Friedrich Wilhelm Ritter e Elisabeth Dorothea, teve sua formacao academica nas ciencias humanas, nos cursos de historia e filosofia, lecionou na Universidade de Berlim (1829-1859), dando aula de historia e geografia, alem de, junto com Alexander Von Humboldt fundar a Sociedade Geografica de Berlim.
E impossivel explanar a respeito da vida e obra de Karl Ritter, sem mencionar a participacao de Alexander Von Humboldt em determinados momentos de sua trajetoria cientifica.
As primeiras colocacoes, no sentido de uma Geografia sistematizada, vao ser obra de dois autores prussianos ligados a aristocracia: Alexandre von Humboldt, conselheiro do rei da Prussia, e Karl Ritter.
In connection with an IAAF meeting in Sweden directly prior to the Berlin Games, Brundage met in Stockholm with Edstrom, Karl Ritter von Halt, the German IOC member who had joined the German Nazi party early in 1933 (22) and who was a very close personal friend of Edstrom's.
Karl Ritter von Halt pointed out to Edstrom that the Germans had a number of "jewish boys in the preparatory teams.
Besides Brundage, Karl Ritter von Halt was without doubt the person who was closest to Edstrom.
Karl Ritter von Halt was eventually released and acquitted in a war crimes trial.
Tschammer und Osten were appointed Commander of the Order of Vasa, first class, Carl Diem and Karl Ritter von Halt, Commanders of the Order of Vasa, second class.
Camera (color, DV 8), Bruch; editor; Mona Willi; music, Karl Ritter, Otto Lechner, Wolfgang Mitterer, Werner Puntigam, Peter Kaizar, Andy Leikauf, Donald Kodritsch, Vincenz Witzelsberger; sound (Dolby), Torsten Heinemann.