Kazaa

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Kazaa

An earlier subscription-based online music service from Brilliant Digital Entertainment, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA. For a monthly fee, Kazaa provided unlimited downloads of music for playing on up to three PCs. An unlimited number of ringtones were also available for one cellphone. In 2012, the service was discontinued.

An Infamous Beginning
The original "KaZaA" was a file sharing service founded in 2001 in Amsterdam by Niklas Zennstrom and Janus Friis, who created the underlying FastTrack peer-to-peer technology that was also used to power other services such as Morpheus and Grokster. Within two years, Kazaa claimed a record 230 million downloads.

Supported by advertisers, the Kazaa Media Desktop software enabled users to view paid content from Altnet as well as content from other users, the latter seriously vexing the music publishing companies. Although users were encouraged to not share copyrighted material, most downloads violated copyrights. The music industry sought to close down the company, and a Dutch court ordered the cessation of the Kazaa software. However, because the Kazaa system was totally distributed, existing users could still swap files, and people still continue to swap music using programs such as Kazaa Lite and Kazaa Resurrection, although to a significantly lesser degree.

In 2002, the Kazaa website and logo were sold to Australian Sharman Networks Ltd. Four years later, Sharman paid $USD 100 million to settle music industry lawsuits and agreed to turn Kazaa into a legitimate service. Brilliant Digital Entertainment (BDE), an Altnet owner, partnered with Sharman to create legal downloads that include digital rights management (DRM). See peer-to-peer network, Napster and BitTorrent.

The Kazaa Supernode Architecture
Unlike Napster, which provided a central directory of shared files, the original Kazaa distributed its directories to "supernodes," which were the users' own computers. Supernodes communicated with other supernodes to complete a search. Users with fast computers and connections were automatically made supernodes unless they disallowed it. As a supernode, no more than 10% of the CPU power was used.

File swapping systems have been architected in different ways as outlined in the following illustrations:








References in periodicals archive ?
De son cote, le directeur du controle economique, Abdelkader Timoui, a souligne, a l'agence TAP, que le marche du gros de Bir El Kasaa s'est approvisionne, durant ce 1er jour du Ramadan, de 2086 tonnes de legumes, de fruits, et de poissons, contre une quantite de 1974 tonnes, le 1er jour du Ramadan 2016.
Several regions with high urban density will benefit from the services of the RFR, such as Borj Cedria, Manouba, Boukatfa, El Gobaa, Ezzouhour, Mellassine, Zahrouni, Sijoumi, Mnihla, Bir El Kasaa, Fouchana, Mhammedia, Bourjel and Ariana North.
Pres de 2718 tonnes de produits alimentaires perimes et en mauvais etat ont ete detruits dans le marche du gros de Bir El Kasaa durant l'annee 2013, et ce lors des operations de controle sanitaire entamees durant cette periode, rapporte le journal [beaucoup moins que] Assarih [beaucoup plus grand que] dans son edition de ce jeudi, 17 janvier 2014.
On Saturday the line-up will include KasaA MasaA from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Group Loulou from Senegal/Gambia, Daby Toure from Mauritania, and Freddie McGregor plus special guests Chino, Laden & the Millennium Band from Jamaica.
Mark Johnston's Kasaa Ed was heavily backed to land a similar contest over course and distance just under a fortnight ago, but the filly went out like a light inside the final furlong, so give her the Spanish archer.
Pour memoire, l'agence TAP avait publie, en septembre 2016, une enquete sur le trafic des bananes au niveau du marche de gros de Bir El Kasaa, le plus grand marche de legumes et fruits de toutes la Tunisie.
2876 dated October 5, 2011, which stipulates the payment of 2% of the value of daily sales of vegetables and fruit to the market of Bir El Kasaa.
Plusieurs regions a forte densite urbaine beneficieront des services du RFR, tels que Borj Cedria, La Manouba, Cite Boukatfa, El Gobaa, Ezzouhour, Mellassine, Zahrouni, Sijoumi, Mnihla, Bir El Kasaa, Fouchana, Mhamdia, Bourjel et Ariana Nord.
He said that the Bir el Kasaa wholesale market has been supplied with 1,500 to 1,900 tons of consumer products, per day, adding that the control authorities have co-ordinated their efforts with the regional authorities to mitigate any shortfall in supply and fight against any unlawful increase in prices.
La SNCFT a annonce l'ouverture d'une enquete pour connaitre les circonstances de l'accident dramatique survenu a 6h15mn, mercredi matin entre un bus de la societe regionale de transport de Nabeul et le train nA51/6, reliant Tunis a Kalaa Khasba et ce entre les stations de Jebel Jelloud et Bir Kasaa, au niveau de l'intersection, au point kilometrique 4+600.
Le responsable a mis l'accent sur l'incapacite des gouvernements successifs a traiter le phenomene de la corruption dans les circuits de distribution, surtout que le marche parallele accapare 80% de la production des agrumes, alors que seuls 10% de cette production sont vendus au marche de gros a Bir Kasaa et le reste (10%) est vendu dans les marches de gros interieurs.
Ben Hassen a visite, a cette occasion, l'echangeur de Bir El Kasaa, l'autoroute Tunis Hammamet, plusieurs points dans la region de Mornag et l'entrepot municipal pour prendre connaissance des conditions de travail des equipes, de leurs preoccupations et de la disponibilite des equipements.