Katanga


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Katanga

(kätăng`gə, kə–), former province, c.200,000 sq mi (518,000 sq km), SE Congo (Kinshasa); called Shaba from 1971 to 1997. Katanga bordered Angola on the southwest, Zambia on the southeast, and Lake Tanganyika on the east. The capital and chief city was LubumbashiLubumbashi
, city (1984 pop. 564,830), capital of Haut-Katanga province, SE Congo (Kinshasa), near the border with Zambia. The second largest city of the country, it is a commercial and industrial center.
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. The province encompassed the fertile Katanga Plateau (3,000–6,000 ft/914–1,829 m high), a farming and ranching region, and an enormously rich mining region in the east.

Copper has been mined and exported by the area's inhabitants for centuries. From the 17th to the 19th cent. much of the former province was controlled by the Luba and Lunda kingdoms. In the late 19th cent. M'Siri, a Nyamwezi trader from what is now central Tanzania, founded a kingdom in the area that lasted until he was killed by the Belgians in 1891. Under Belgian rule (1884–1960), mineral resources were exploited by Belgian firms and the province was developed much more rapidly than the rest of the country.

In July, 1960, after the Congo became independent, Katanga proclaimed itself a republic and seceded from the central government. Under the leadership of its president, Moise TshombeTshombe, Moise Kapenda
, 1919–69, political leader in Congo (Kinshasa). He was related to the royal family of the Lunda people and received his education at mission schools.
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, and with Belgian aid, Katanga fought off repeated attempts by the central government to seize control. Disorder was widespread, and the central government invoked the help of the United Nations. In 1960, President Tshombe reluctantly allowed a small UN force to enter Katanga. Later a considerable number of UN troops, committed to a policy of nonintervention, were stationed in Katanga to oversee the withdrawal of foreign troops. The Belgian troops were slowly withdrawn, but white mercenary officers continued to command in the army of Katanga. There was recurrent trouble between the UN force and the Katangese, and attempts at reconciliation with the central government proved fruitless.

The situation grew steadily more volatile until early 1961, when the former premier Patrice LumumbaLumumba, Patrice Emergy
, 1925–61, prime minister (1960) of the Republic of the Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). A member of the Batatele tribe, he was educated in mission schools and later worked as a postal clerk.
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 was murdered in Katanga. Under a new, stronger UN mandate the international force took control (1961) of Elisabethville (now Lubumbashi) and other strongpoints. An agreement (Dec., 1961) for reintegrating Katanga into the country proved abortive. In Jan., 1963, UN troops routed Tshombe's forces and ended the Katanga secession.

In 1966 the central government nationalized Union Minière du Haut Katanga, the Belgian firm that had controlled most of Katanga's mining interests. It was renamed Gécamines. In 1971 Katanga was renamed Shaba; the original name was restored in 1997. In the 1970s further insurrections were put down by the government with help from foreign nations, and in the 1990s there was again talk of secession. During the civil war that began in 1998, Katanga was divided between government and rebel control. Despite the 2002 peace treaty ending the civil war, Katanga continued to experience factional fighting that displaced thousands. In 2015, Katanga was divided into four provinces: Tanganyika (NE), Haut-Katanga (SE), Haut-Lomami (central), and Lualaba (SW).

Katanga

a region of SE Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Za?re): site of a secessionist movement during the 1960s and again in 1993; important for hydroelectric power and rich mineral resources (copper and tin ore). Pop.: 4 125 000 (1998 est.). Area: 496 964 sq. km (191 878 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Katanga was found guilty of crimes against humanity and war crimes committed on February 24, 2003 during the attack on the village of Bogoro, in the Ituri district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the ICC said in a press release in the Hague.
Katanga, nicknamed Simba, is only the second person convicted since the court was established in 2002.
Mr Katanga was transferred to The Hague by the Congolese authorities in 2007.
Once used in Katanga as currency, they were plundered by Belgium's colonial rulers.
Malgre la fin des hostilites entre les Forces armees de la Republique democratique du Congo (FARDC) et le Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) en novembre 2013, d'autres conflits perdurent dans certaines provinces du pays, notamment dans la Province Orientale, dans les deux Kivu, et au Katanga.
Emergence of VDPV was next detected in Katanga in July 2005 (Figure 3).
We are extremely concerned by continued reports of active recruitment by Mayi Mayi Bakata Katanga and other armed groups in eastern DRC," said MONUSCO chief Martin Kobler.
Katanga Mining Limited (TSX: KAT), a company that operates a major mine complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo that produces refined copper and cobalt, has named Paul Inbona as its new chief financial officer, effective immediately.
A new regional trade route reaching from the Katanga Province in the Congo all the way to Walvis Bay as point of entry, is on the radar of the Walvis Bay Corridor Group following an agreement between Namibia and the DRC.
convoy was attacked by rebels in the Congo's Katanga province, and his fate was unknown for decades.
Ben has worked for various companies including Oceana Gold, RSG Global, Katanga Resources, Hill 50 Gold and Herald Resources.