Katanga

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Katanga

(kätăng`gə, kə–), former province, c.200,000 sq mi (518,000 sq km), SE Congo (Kinshasa); called Shaba from 1971 to 1997. Katanga bordered Angola on the southwest, Zambia on the southeast, and Lake Tanganyika on the east. The capital and chief city was LubumbashiLubumbashi
, city (1984 pop. 564,830), capital of Haut-Katanga province, SE Congo (Kinshasa), near the border with Zambia. The second largest city of the country, it is a commercial and industrial center.
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. The province encompassed the fertile Katanga Plateau (3,000–6,000 ft/914–1,829 m high), a farming and ranching region, and an enormously rich mining region in the east.

Copper has been mined and exported by the area's inhabitants for centuries. From the 17th to the 19th cent. much of the former province was controlled by the Luba and Lunda kingdoms. In the late 19th cent. M'Siri, a Nyamwezi trader from what is now central Tanzania, founded a kingdom in the area that lasted until he was killed by the Belgians in 1891. Under Belgian rule (1884–1960), mineral resources were exploited by Belgian firms and the province was developed much more rapidly than the rest of the country.

In July, 1960, after the Congo became independent, Katanga proclaimed itself a republic and seceded from the central government. Under the leadership of its president, Moise TshombeTshombe, Moise Kapenda
, 1919–69, political leader in Congo (Kinshasa). He was related to the royal family of the Lunda people and received his education at mission schools.
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, and with Belgian aid, Katanga fought off repeated attempts by the central government to seize control. Disorder was widespread, and the central government invoked the help of the United Nations. In 1960, President Tshombe reluctantly allowed a small UN force to enter Katanga. Later a considerable number of UN troops, committed to a policy of nonintervention, were stationed in Katanga to oversee the withdrawal of foreign troops. The Belgian troops were slowly withdrawn, but white mercenary officers continued to command in the army of Katanga. There was recurrent trouble between the UN force and the Katangese, and attempts at reconciliation with the central government proved fruitless.

The situation grew steadily more volatile until early 1961, when the former premier Patrice LumumbaLumumba, Patrice Emergy
, 1925–61, prime minister (1960) of the Republic of the Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). A member of the Batatele tribe, he was educated in mission schools and later worked as a postal clerk.
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 was murdered in Katanga. Under a new, stronger UN mandate the international force took control (1961) of Elisabethville (now Lubumbashi) and other strongpoints. An agreement (Dec., 1961) for reintegrating Katanga into the country proved abortive. In Jan., 1963, UN troops routed Tshombe's forces and ended the Katanga secession.

In 1966 the central government nationalized Union Minière du Haut Katanga, the Belgian firm that had controlled most of Katanga's mining interests. It was renamed Gécamines. In 1971 Katanga was renamed Shaba; the original name was restored in 1997. In the 1970s further insurrections were put down by the government with help from foreign nations, and in the 1990s there was again talk of secession. During the civil war that began in 1998, Katanga was divided between government and rebel control. Despite the 2002 peace treaty ending the civil war, Katanga continued to experience factional fighting that displaced thousands. In 2015, Katanga was divided into four provinces: Tanganyika (NE), Haut-Katanga (SE), Haut-Lomami (central), and Lualaba (SW).

Katanga

a region of SE Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Za?re): site of a secessionist movement during the 1960s and again in 1993; important for hydroelectric power and rich mineral resources (copper and tin ore). Pop.: 4 125 000 (1998 est.). Area: 496 964 sq. km (191 878 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Cuts in welfare took many of the residents of Katanga by surprise, for, unlike the rest of the Congolese, revenues from mining had for decades offered relative stability to the Katangese from much of the economic turmoil in post-independence Congo.
Hammarskjold was on his way to Ndola to meet | Tshombe to negotiate an end to the Katangese secession.
He thinks that the pilot was a character known as 'The Lone Ranger' and must have been communicating with the CIA or with some other Katangese, Rhodesian or British base, which was cooperating with the CIA.
Most of the Katangese white mercenaries escaped, although many of them were later rehired by the Congolese government to help put down the violent Simba rebellion.
Hammarskjold was on his way to meet the Katangese leader, Moise Tshombe, to negotiate an end to the secession in 1961.
In 1961, in the mining town of Jadotville, 150 soldiers of the Athlone town-based A company 35th Infantry Battalion came under attack from 4,000 Belgian-led Katangese forces.
Reharmonizing of Relationships between Katangese and Kasaian People in the Province of Katanga (1991-2005)
The 150 Irish troops later came under attack from 4000 Belgian led Katangese forces.
He also used ethnic tension between the Kasai and Katangese to diminish support for his main political opponent, Etienne Tshisekedi, who was an ethnic Kasai.
4) Soon after, Angola encouraged the so-called Katanga Tigers, a group of aging Katangese soldiers and their sons who had been living in exile in Angola since the failed Katanga secession attempt in 1962, to join the fight against Mobutu.