Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic


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Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

 

(Kazak Sovettik Sotsialistik Respublikasy), Kazakhstan (Kazakstan).

The Kazakh SSR was originally formed as the Kirghiz ASSR, part of the RSFSR, on Aug. 26, 1920; on Dec. 5, 1936, the autonomous Soviet socialist republic became the Kazakh Union Republic. It is located in the southwestern Asian part of the USSR. It borders on the RSFSR to the north, the Turkmen, Uzbek, and Kirghiz SSR’s to the south, China to the east, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Kazakhstan is the second largest Union republic in area (after the RSFSR) and the third largest in population (after the RSFSR and the Ukraine). Area, 2, 717, 300 sq km; population, 13, 928, 000 (as of Jan. 1, 1974). Capital, Alma-Ata.

The republic is divided into 19 oblasts and 210 raions and has 82 cities and 177 urban-type settlements (see Table 1).

[section updated]

Kazakhstan is a socialist state of workers and peasants, a Union Soviet socialist republic of the USSR. The present constitution was ratified by the Extraordinary Tenth Congress of Soviets of the Kazakh SSR on Mar. 26, 1937. The supreme body of state power is the unicameral Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, which is elected for four years on the basis of one deputy for every 27, 000 inhabitants. Between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, the supreme body of state power is the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR. The Supreme Soviet appoints the government of the republic—the Council of Ministers —and legislates for the Kazakh SSR. The local bodies of government in the oblasts, raions, cities, and auls (villages) are the respective Soviets of working people’s deputies, which are elected

Table 1. Administrative-territorial division of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (as of Jan. 1, 1974)
OblastArea
(sq km)
PopulationNumber of
cities
Number of
urban-type setlements
Center
Aktiubinsk..........298, 700592, 00073Aktiubinsk
Alma-Ata..........1047001, 604, 00056Alma-Ata
Chimkent..........116, 3001, 416, 00087Chimkent
Dzhambul..........144, 600870, 000412Dzhambul
Dzhezkazgan..........313, 400441,000419Dzhezkazgan
Gur’ev..........112, 000362, 000114Gur’ev
Karaganda..........85, 4001, 223, 000616Karaganda
Kokchetav..........78, 100598, 00046Kokchetav
Kustanai..........114, 500921,000412Kustanai
Kzyl-Orda..........228, 100529, 00037Kzyl-Orda
Mangyshlak..........1 66, 600218, 000311Shevchenko
Pavlodar..........127, 500750, 000411Pavlodar
Semipalatinsk..........1 79 600744, 00039Semipalatinsk
Severnyi Kazakhstan..........44, 300551,00041Petropavlovsk
Taldy-Kurgan..........118, 500655, 000510Taldy-Kurgan
Tselinograd..........124, 600797, 000513Tselinograd
Turgai..........1 1 1, 900249, 00031Arkalyk
Ural’sk..........151 200547, 00034Ural’sk
Vostochnyi Kazakhstan..........97, 300861,000615Ust’-Kamenogorsk

by the people for two-year terms. The Kazakh SSR is represented by 32 deputies in the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

The highest judicial body of Kazakhstan is the Supreme Court of the republic, which is elected by the republic’s Supreme Soviet for a term of five years. It operates in the form of two judicial divisions—one for civil and one for criminal cases—and a plenum. The Presidium of the Supreme Court is also formed. The procurator of the Kazakh SSR is appointed by the procurator general of the USSR for a five-year term.

Kazakhstan stretches from the lower course of the Volga in the west to the Altai in the east and from the Western Siberian Lowland in the north to the Tien-Shan in the south. The Khan Tengri massif, with elevations to 7, 000 m, rises in the southeast. A feature of Kazakhstan is its interior continental position in Eurasia.

Terrain. The terrain of Kazakhstan is extremely diverse. There are high mountains covered with glaciers, a hilly middle-altitude mountain area and plateau-like elevations, and vast plains and depressions. The northwestern part of the republic is occupied by the southern outskirts of the Obshchii Syrt and the Cis-Uralic Plateau (elevations to 354 m). South of these lies the vast, flat Caspian Depression, whose absolute elevation varies from the level of the Caspian Sea (−28 m) to 50 m above sea level. The Mangyshlak Peninsula is located in the southwest. The north is a solonchak depression; the center is occupied by the Karatau Range (elevations to 556 m), and in the south there are deep internally drained depressions whose bottoms lie below sea level: Karagie, −132 m, the deepest basin in the USSR; Karynzharyk, —70 m; and Kaundy, —54 m. East of Mangyshlak is the Ustiurt desert plateau (elevations to 340 m), which is surrounded by steep precipices, or scarps. In its low-lying northern portion there are solonchaks and large tracts of sand (Sam, Asmantai-Matai, and Karatulei). In the northeast, the Caspian Depression is bounded by the southern spurs of the Urals and the Mugodzhar Mountains (elevations to 657 m). The Turgai Plateau (elevations of 200–400 m) is northeast of the Mugodzhar Mountains. In the south it gives way to the Turan Depression, which is occupied by the Kyzylkum (elevations from 53 to 332 m). The large sand tracts of the Bol’shie and Malye Barsuki and the Aral Karakum are north of the Aral Sea.

Only the southern outskirts of the Western Siberian Lowland lie within the republic. The central portion is occupied by the Kazakh melkosopochnik (area of gently sloping low hills), or Saryarka, the remains of an ancient destroyed mountain area, within which there are isolated mountain massifs—Kyzylrai (1, 565 m), Karkaraly (1, 366 m), and Ulutau (1, 133 m). To the south the Kazakh melkosopochnik gives way to an extremely arid desert, Betpak-Dala (elevations 250–550 m). To the south of Betpak-Dala, a great expanse is occupied by the large Muiunkum tract of sand desert (elevations to 66 m). The vast Semirech’e region is east of Betpak-Dala (elevations to 800 m); it is named after seven rivers that empty into Lake Balkhash from the south. Much of the Semirech’e is occupied by the Balkhash basin, with the large Sary-Ishikotrau sand tract; in the southwest, the basin is connected to the Hi basin, and in the east, to the Sasykkol’-Alakol’ basin. The majority of the basins are filled by lakes.

The southern chains of the Altai (the southern and Rudnyi Altai), with elevations to 4, 506 m (Mount Belukha), are located in the east and southeast, as are the ranges of Saur (elevations to 3, 805 m), Tarbagatai (2, 992 m), the Dzungarian Alatau (4, 463 m), and the Northern and Western Tien-Shan: Ketmen’ (to 3, 368 m), the Chu Hi Mountains (1, 520 m), the Zailiiskii Alatau (4, 973 m), part of the Kungei-Alatau (4, 213 m), the Kirghiz Range (3, 817 m), the Talasskii Alatau (4, 488 m), the Ugam Range (4, 229 m), and the Karatau (2, 176 m).

S. A. ABDRAKHMANOV

Geological structure and mineral resources. In the west, most of the Caspian syneclise of the Eastern European Platform lies in Kazakhstan; the Phanerozoic layers reach a thickness of 16–18 km. A thick saliferous series of the Upper and possibly Middle Paleozoic (4–6 km and more) occurs in the middle part of the cross section of the syneclise; it includes veins of rock salt, potassium salt, and borates. Salt forms the nucleus of more than 350 domes. Workable oil and oil and gas deposits, confined to Permian-Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene deposits, are associated with the salt-dome structures. Lower Cretaceous sedimentation contains deposits of phosphorites. Thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary layers, which in some places are oil- and gas-bearing and overlap Paleozoic outcroppings and troughs, lie within the Ustiurt; the ancient foundation, composed of Paleozoic rock, underlies the outcroppings and troughs at great depths.

The Mugodzhar Mountains are composed of intricately constructed Precambrian and Paleozoic folded metamorphized magmatic and sedimentary strata permeated by intrusions of granitoids and basic and hyperbasic rock. Copper pyrite deposits have been discovered in the Silurian greenstone stratum. East and south of the Mugodzhars, a Paleozoic foundation is prevalent throughout Kazakhstan. In the Turgai downwarp, it occurs at depths ranging from several dozen meters to 1,000 m. Deposits of magnetic iron ores are found in the foundation of the Turgai downwarp (Sokolov, Sarbai, and Kachar). The Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Neocene deposits that lie almost horizontally on the Paleozoic foundation include bog iron ore (the Aiat and Lisakovsk deposits, Kustanai Oblast), brown coals (the Obagan basin), and bauxites (the Amangel’dy group of deposits).

The foundation of the Chu Depression is encountered at depths of 500-2, 000 m and is overlapped by Middle and Upper Paleozoic sedimentary strata with large deposits of copper sandstones of Dzhezkazgan and a thick saliferous series, as well as by Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rock. In the northern Kyzylkum and the region adjoining the Aral Sea, the foundation is overlapped by a series of Paleozoic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata 1,000–4, 000 m thick. In Mangyshlak the lower layers of the sheath (Permian-Triassic), which are more than 10 km thick, form a system of compressed west-north folds. Large veins of oil and natural gas (Zhetybai, Uzen’, and others) are attributed to the Mesozoic rocks in these folds. Deposits of brown coal are also associated with the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits there.

The folded Paleozoic structure appears on the surface in the mountains of the Altai, Tarbagatai, and Dzungarian Alatau, the northern chains of the Tien-Shan, and the Karatau, as well as in central Kazakhstan. Rock complexes of diverse composition attain thicknesses of dozens of kilometers. The most ancient rocks have been metamorphized into gneisses and schists. The upper portions of the cross section are composed of weakly altered rocks.

Among pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic formations there are complexes influenced by folding of the Caledonian and Hercynian eras that pertain to manifestations of the main tectonic movements. Caledonides form a vast ancient mass covering all the northwestern and western parts of central Kazakhstan, as well as the northern Tien-Shan. Hercynian rock makes up the Mugodzhars, the foundation of the western part of the Turgai downwarp, the southern part of the Kyzylkum, the Balkhash area, and the mountains of the Dzungarian Alatau, Tarbagatai, Altai, and Chingiz. Volcanic beds and granites of late Paleozoic origin, as well as belts of hyperbasic rocks in places, are prevalent in a number of areas (the Mugodzhars, the Balkhash area, the northern Tien-Shan, the Rudnyi Altai, and the Kalba). Paleozoic and more ancient strata form fold bows that bulge toward the southwest. They are meridional in trend in the Mugodzhars and in the western part of central Kazakhstan; in the Tien-Shan and Dzungarian Alatau, as well as the eastern part of central Kazakhstan and the Altai, they are latitudinal and northwesterly. The most recent tectonic movements and the earthquakes accompanying them are strongly manifested in many mountain areas of Kazakhstan.

Many large deposits of metallic and nonmetallic minerals are attributed to the folded Paleozoic foundation of Kazakhstan, among which the copper and complex-ore deposits of the Rudnyi Altai, central Kazakhstan, the Dzungarian Alatau, and Karatau are prominent. The deposits of rare metals of Kalba and central Kazakhstan are associated with Paleozoic granitoids. Gold ore deposits are concentrated in northern Kazakhstan (Kokchetav and Tselinograd oblasts) and eastern Kazakhstan (western Kalba). A considerable quantity of gold is contained in the gold–pyrite-complex-ore deposits of the Rudnyi Altai, Chingiz, and Maikain. Iron-manganese and iron ores have been prospected in the Atasui iron-manganese basin (central Kazakhstan) and the Karsakpai (Ulutau) iron ore basin. Depressions of the Paleozoic foundation are occupied by deposits of the Karaganda and Ekibastuz coal and Maikuba brown coal basins. Deposits of ores of chromites (the Donskoe deposits), nickel, cobalt, copper, gold, and asbestos are prevalent in the volcanic and ultrabasic rock of the Mugodzhar fold complex. Carbonaceous-siliceous shales of the Cambrian period are contained in blanket deposits of the Karatau phosphorite and vanadium basins.

Kazakhstan is one of the richest regions of the USSR in resources and diversity of minerals. Most of its deposits were discovered during the Soviet period. The republic is a leader in the USSR in prospected reserves of chromite ores, copper, lead, zinc, silver, tungsten, phosphorites, barite, molybdenum, cadmium, bismuth, asbestos, and pyrophyllite.

A. A. BOGDANOV and T. GAPUOV

Climate. Kazakhstan’s remoteness from oceans, its vastness, and its mountainous features result in a sharply continental climate with very marked zonality. Solar radiation is considerable because of the southern location and low degree of cloudiness. The sun shines 2, 000 hours a year in the north to 3, 000 hours in the south. Overall radiation increases from 100 kilocalories per sq cm (kcal/cm2) in the north to 140 kcal/cm2 in the south. In the north the winter is cold and long; in the central region, moderately cold; in the south, basically moderately mild and brief; and in the extreme south, mild. The average January temperature rises from −18°C in the north to −3°C in the extreme southern portion of the flat country. In winter, frosts down to −45°C in the north and central regions and sometimes down to −35°C in the south occur as a result of the penetration of cold continental arctic air masses from the north and northwest. On the plains the summer is long and dry; in the north, it is warm; in the center, very warm; and in the south, hot. The average July temperature increases from 19°C in the north to 28°–30°C in the south. In the mountains, summers are brief and moderate; winters are comparatively warm. There is little precipitation anywhere. Average annual precipitation in the forest-steppe is 300–400 mm, in the steppe it decreases to 250 mm, in the Kazakh melkosopochnik it rises to 300–400 mm, and in the semidesert and desert it drops to 200–100 mm. Precipitation is particularly low (less than 100 mm per year) in the area adjoining Lake Balkhash, the southwestern part of the Kyzylkum adjoining the Aral Sea, and the southern Ustiurt. In the foothills and mountains, annual precipitation is 400–1, 600 mm. In the north and center, most of the rain comes during the summer months; in the south, in early spring. Strong winds are characteristic of almost all of Kazakhstan. In winter, southwesterly winds predominate in the north and northeasterly winds in the south; in summer, northerly winds prevail everywhere. The growing season lasts 190–200 days in the north and 230–290 days in the south.

Glaciation There are more than 2, 700 glaciers; their area is about 2, 000 sq km, and the total mass of ice and névé is about 60 billion cu m. Valley glaciers account for about one-fifth of the total number but more than one-half of the total area. The main areas of glaciation are the Dzungarian Alatau, the ranges of the Tien-Shan, and the Berel’ glaciation node in the Altai.

Rivers and lakes. The diversity of the terrain and climate results in uneven distribution of surface water. There are very few rivers in the deserts; in the north and the high-altitude regions there are many. There are about 85, 000 rivers and temporary runoffs, of which 90 percent are less than 10 km long; there are only 228 rivers longer than 100 km. The well-moistened eastern and southern high-mountain regions, from which the largest rivers flow, have a very dense river network (0.2–0.4 km per sq km; in northern Kazakhstan, the index is 0.03–0.05 km per sq km, and in the desert zone it is still lower). Many of the rivers belong to the internal inland basins of the Caspian and Aral seas and Lakes Balkhash, Tengiz, Shalkar, and Karasor; only the Irtysh, Ishim, and Tobol rivers are part of the Ob’basin. The large rivers of the Caspian basin are the Ural and Emba; of the Aral basin, the Syr Darya. The Hi, Karatal, Aksu, and Lepsy rivers empty into Lake Balkhash from the south; the Aiaguz, Bakanas, and Tokrau, from the north. In addition to small temporary runoffs, Lake Tengiz receives one of the major rivers of Kazakhstan, the Nura. The basins of small rivers—the Irgiz, Turgai, Sarysu, Chu, and others—form independent closed drainage regions. Snow-fed plains rivers with spring high water predominate. Many dry up in summer, partially breaking up into reaches. In the south and east there are many mountain rivers fed by glaciers and snow; high water for them is in the spring and summer. Mountain rivers have the greatest water capacity and play an important role in the economy. More than 160 billion kilowatt-hours of electric power can be produced from them annually. Surface runoff in Kazakhstan is 112 cu km a year. In the south, rivers are used for irrigation, and trunk canals branch off from many of them. The Irtysh-Karaganda canal, built to supply water for the industries of central Kazakhstan, begins at the Irtysh. The Kzyl-Orda dam, Chardar’ia Reservoir, and Kazalinsk Hydroengineering Complex on the Syr Darya, the Bukhtarma Reservoir on the Irtysh, the Kapchagai Reservoir on the Hi, the Karatomar Reservoir on the Tobol, and the Sergeevka Reservoir on the Ishim have been built to regulate discharge and to use the water for irrigation and inundation. The Irtysh, Hi, Ural, and Syr Darya (from its mouth to Kazalinsk) are navigable.

There are more than 48, 000 lakes in Kazakhstan, with an area of 45, 000 sq km; 94 percent of them have areas of up to 1 sq km. They are mainly floodplain and delta lakes. There are 21 lakes with areas greater than 100 sq km, including Balkhash, Zaisan (part of the Bukhtarma Reservoir), Alakol’, Tengiz, Seletyteniz, Sasykkol’, Kushmurun, Markakol’, and Ul’ken-Karoi. The northern and northeastern Caspian Sea and the northern Aral Sea lie in Kazakhstan. There are also more than 4, 000 ponds and reservoirs. Most of the lakes are undrained. Their levels fluctuate sharply over the seasons and from year to year, and their outlines and dimensions change periodically. Many of them dry up or become salinas in dry years. Lakes are most commonly found in northern Kazakhstan, where there are many enclosed depressions. In the steppe zone and mountains and along the valleys of the large rivers, freshwater lakes predominate; in the semidesert and desert zones and in intermontane basins, saltwater lakes are prevalent. Various salts are extracted from many lakes, and more than 30 have medicinal mud and natural brine.

In many regions there are large supplies of fresh and slightly saline groundwaters, which are used in part by industrial and agricultural enterprises. The groundwater resources of Kazakhstan are estimated at 7, 000 cu km. There are many mineral springs.

Soils The soil cover of Kazakhstan is marked by clearly expressed geographical and altitudinal zonality. A narrow band of chernozems lies in the north, up to 52° N lat. It is divided into leached chernozems, which are a small portion of the forest-steppe zone in Severnyi Kazakhstan Oblast; ordinary chernozems of the moderately dry steppe, which constitute 4.6 percent of the total area of the soils of Kazakhstan; and southern chernozems of the arid steppe, which account for 4.9 percent. Chestnut soils are found south of the chernozems, between 52° and 48° N lat. They are subdivided into dark chestnut soils of the moderately dry steppe (10.5 percent), typical chestnuts of the dry steppe (9.6 percent), and light chestnut soils of the semidesert (14.2 percent). The chernozems and dark chestnut soils have been plowed up. South of 48° N lat., brown and brownish gray desert soils are prevalent; they alternate with large tracts of sandy desert soils and takyr-like soils. Brown soils of the northern desert subzone (21.6 percent) and gray-brown soils confined to the middle and southern desert subzones (22 percent) stand out in this area. In the mountains of the Western and Northern Tien-Shan, the gray-brown soils give way to sierozems and light chestnut soils of the plain and foothill subzone. Higher in the mountains of the Western Tien-Shan, there is a zone of mountain brown soils, and in the mountains of the Northern Tien-Shan, Saur, Tarbagatai, and western Altai there is a zone of mountain dark chestnut soils, chestnut soils, and mountain chernozems. In the mountains of the Northern Tien-Shan, a belt of leached mountain chernozems, mountain gray-forest soils, and mountain dark-forest soils follows the preceding belt; in the western Altai, a belt of mountain-meadow chernozem-like and gray forest soils follows it. Still higher, a band of mountain-meadow subalpine and alpine soils is found in all mountain regions. Mountain soils make up 12.6 percent of Kazakhstan.

Flora The flora of Kazakhstan is very diverse. The plains areas of Kazakhstan are divided into three main zones—steppe, semidesert, and desert—according to the nature of vegetation.

In the steppe zone (the northern part), mixed-grass vegetation prevails (feathergrasses, sheep fescue, hair-grass, oat-grass, purple-stem cat’s-tatl, wild rye, wormwood, and, in the floodplains of rivers, brome and couch-grass meadows). In the extreme northern part of the steppe zone are small dispersed birch groves with aspen mixed in. Pine forests survive on river banks, primarily along the Irtysh and Tobol and the granitic tracts of the Kazakh melkosopochnik. Fescue and feather-grass vegetation characterizes the dry steppe.

In the semidesert zone, wormwood-herbaceous vegetation (white and black wormwood, tyrsik [Stipa sareptana], and fescue) is dominant.

The desert zone (sand, clay, and gravel) occupies the greatest area. The vegetative cover of clay and gravel deserts has drought-resistant undergrowth and shrubs and various saltworts and wormwoods in combination with grasses (prostrate summer cypress, sarsazan [Halocnemum], biiurgun [Anabasis salsa], boialych [Salsola arbuscula], kokpek [A triplex cana], glasswort, white and black wormwood, milk vetches, camel-thorn, winterfat, and tamarisk). Sand wormwood, sand sedge, Siberian wheat-grass, Calligonum, sand acacia, and white saxaul are widespread in sand deserts. There are tracts of black saxaul in the Kyzylkum and Sary-Ishikotrau sand deserts. Tugai forests (olive, turanga poplar, willow, tamarisk, and salt tree) are found in the valleys of large rivers in the desert zone; reeds grow around lakes and along rivers. The deserts of Kazakhstan serve as winter and, to some extent, year-round pastures. Ephemerals and ephemer-aloids (little sedge, bulbous meadow grass, mottled poppy, and tulip) are very typical of foothill plains and foothills. The foothills of the mountain ranges are covered with steppe vegetation. At higher elevations, shrubs (briar, honeysuckle, and barberry) and sparse aspen and birch forests are encountered; in addition, wild apple trees, apricot trees, and hawthorn are found in the Zailiiskii Alatau. In the middle mountain belt there are typical coniferous forests. In the Altai, these forests have a Siberian habit, consisting of Siberian larch, spruce, Siberian stone pine, fir, and cedar, with a dense shrub underbrush. The Shrenk spruce, at times interspersed with Siberian fir, is prevalent in the Dzungarian Alatau. Farther south, in the Tien-Shan, the fir disappears and the Schrenk spruce remains. Above the forest belt there are subalpine and alpine meadows formed by Kobresia capilliformis, sedges, lady’s mantle, meadow grass, and other mixed grasses; they are good summer pastures. There are juniper groves—Turkestan juniper—in higher sections of the Tien-Shan ranges. Forests cover about 10 million hectares (ha), or 3 percent of Kazakhstan, with the main tracts concentrated in the Altai, Dzungarian Alatau, and eastern Tien-Shan. Most of the forests are valuable for water and soil protection and for improving air quality; saxaul is used for fuel and securing desert sands.

Fauna. Among the contemporary fauna of Kazakhstan are 155 species of mammals, 480 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, 11 species of amphibians, about 150 species of fish, and many invertebrates. Rodents are the most common mammals: the suslik and hamster in the steppes, yellow suslik in the deserts, water rat around bodies of water in northern Kazakhstan, and field mice, jerboas, marmots, and hares in all areas. The saiga and goitered gazelle inhabit the desert and semidesert; Caspian deer, musk deer, mountain goat, and Pamir argali are found in the mountains of the Altai and Tien-Shan; and boars and roe live on the plains and in the mountains. Among the predators are the wolf, fox, badger, weasel, and Siberian polecat. In the forests of the Altai and Tien-Shan are brown bear, snow leopard, lynx, wolverine, Siberian weasel, and squirrel. The muskrat has been acclimatized in the lower reaches of the Hi, Karatal, and other rivers. Waterfowl nesting in Kazakhstan include the gray-lag goose, sheldrake, mallard, gadwall, white-headed duck, and ruddy sheldrake; flamingo (on Lake Tengiz); and bittern and gray and white herons (in the reeds). Cormorants, pelicans, and cranes are encountered; in the steppes there are bustards, little bustards, sociable plovers, curlews, larks, eagles, harriers, and kestrels. In the plains section there are many tortoises and lizards, including the genus Phrynocephalus and agamids, and also snakes. The lakes and rivers are rich in fish. Seals inhabit the Caspian Sea, and giant sturgeon, sturgeon, Caspian sturgeon, Acipenser nudiventris, Stenodus leucichthys, herring, Clupeonella, pike perch, bream, Caspian roach, and gray mullet are bred. In addition, the Aral Sea barbel, chub, Clupea harengus membras, and carp inhabit the Aral Sea. In rivers and lakes there are pike, perch, and crucian carp. In mountain lakes and rivers there are sea trout, grayling, and nelma.

Preserves. Kazakhstan has the Alma-Ata, Aksu-Dzhabagli, and Barsakel’mes preserves, as well as the Naurzum Preserve, for the protection and study of the natural complex of the most southerly pine forest in Kazakhstan (in the steppe zone), and the KurgaPdzhin Preserve, for the protection of an untouched portion of the steppe landscape and the protection and study of the fauna of Lakes Kurgal’dzhin and Tengiz, where flamingo nest.

Natural regions. On the plains of Kazakhstan—including the tracts of melkosopochnik and insular low mountains—which occupy about 90 percent of its territory, natural zonality is distinct, from the forest steppe zone in the north to the desert in the south.

In Kazakhstan, the East European Plain includes the trans-Volga elevated watershed, the eastern part of the Caspian Depression, and the Cis-Uralic Plateau. The Urals include the Southern Urals, Mugodzhars, and Trans-Ural Plateau. The Western Siberian Lowland occupies the southern forest-steppe and steppe section. The Turan Depression includes the desert regions of Mangyshlak, Ustiurt, the Turgai Plateau, the Aral region, the Kyzylkum, Betpak-Dala, Muiunkum, and the Balkhash-Alakol’ Basin. The Kazakh melkosopochnik is located in central Kazakhstan. In the southeast and east are the mountains and intermontane hollows of the Western and Southern Altai, Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Northern and Western Tien-Shan, and their spurs, where various types of vertical landscape zonality dominate, from southern Siberian landscapes in the north to steppe and desert landscapes in the south.

S. A. ABDRAKHMANOV

REFERENCES

“Kazakhstan.” Moscow, 1969. (Prirodnye usloviia i estestvennye resursy SSSR.)
Gvozdetskii, N. A., and V. A. Nikolaev. Kazakhstan: Ocherk prirody. Moscow, 1971.
Bespalov, V. F. Geologicheskoe stroenie Kazakhskoi SSR. Alma-Ata, 1971.
Geologiia SSSR, vol. 20: Vostochnyi Kazakhstan, part 1, Moscow-Leningrad, 1941; vol. 21: Zapadnyi Kazakhstan, part 1, books 1–2, Moscow-Leningrad, 1970.
Esenov, Sh. E., D. S. Kunaev, and S. M. Mukhamedzhanov. Nedra Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1968.
Klimat Kazakhstana. Leningrad, 1959.
Kalachev, N. S., and L. D. Lavrent’eva. Vodoenergeticheskii kadastr rek Kazakhskoi SSR. Alma-Ata, 1965.
Pochvy Kazakhskoi SSR, fasc. 1–13. Alma-Ata, 1960–70.
Pavlov, N. V. Rastitel’noe syr’e Kazakhstana. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Sobolev, L. N. Kormovye resursy Kazakhstana. Moscow, 1960.
Gudochkin, M. V., and P. S. Chaban. Lesa Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Afanas’ev, A. V. Zoogeografiia Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1960.

The native population is composed of Kazakhs (4, 234, 000, according to the 1970 census). Substantial numbers of Russians (5, 522, 000) and Ukrainians (933, 000) live in the republic, primarily in the virgin lands of northern Kazakhstan and the cities; there are Tatars (288, 000), Uzbeks (216, 000), Byelorussians (198, 000), and Uighurs (121,000) living in the valleys of the upper Hi River, as well as Koreans (82, 000, primarily in Alma-Ata and Kzyl-Orda oblasts) and Dungans of Middle Asia (17, 000).

As of 1972 the population of Kazakhstan had increased by 2.4 times since 1913 (see Table 2). The growth has come from natural increase and the large influx from other republics in conjunction with the rapid development of industry and the exploitation of virgin and unused lands. Kazakhstan is ahead of many other Union republics in natural population increase (17.8 per thousand in 1971; the average for the USSR was 9.6).

Table 2. Population
 Population
(in millions)
Percentage of
total
 TotalUrbanRuralUrbanRural
1913 (end-of-year estimate)5.597.5415.0569.790.3
1926 (census of Dec. 17)6.025.5195.5068.691.4
1940 (estimate as of
Jan. 1)..........
6.1481.8334.31529.870.2
1959 (census of Jan.15)..9.2954.0675.22843.856.2
1970 (census of Jan. 15)..13.0096.5386.47150.349.7
1972 (estimate as of
Jan. 1)............
13.4706.94265.2852.048.0

The population distribution is extremely uneven. Average density is 5 per sq km. The southern foothill zone, where the density sometimes reaches more than 100 per sq km in the oases of irrigated farming, is the most thickly settled. The density is also comparatively high in the north in the chernozem forest-steppe and steppe agricultural zone (20 and more per sq km) and a number of industrial centers and regions. At the same time, vast expanses of desert and semidesert are still very sparsely settled. The average density in western, central, and southern Kazakhstan is 1.4–1.8 per sq km.

In 1971, 4, 837, 000 people were employed in the economy of Kazakhstan (5.3 times more than in 1940), of which 1, 075, 000 worked in industry, 555, 000 in construction, 983, 000 in agriculture, and 566, 000 in transportation and communications. Women make up 47 percent of the industrial and office workers.

The proportions of urban and rural population have changed as a result of socialist industrialization. Under Soviet power, more than 200 new urban settlements have been created. Before the October Revolution, there was no city in Kazakhstan with a population of 50, 000 or more; in 1972, there were 25, of which 16 had a population of more than 100, 000 and two of these— Alma-Ata and Karaganda—had more than 500, 000 residents (776, 000 and 541,000, respectively). New large industrial centers include Karaganda, Temirtau (179, 000), Balkhash (78, 000), and Dzhezkazgan (68, 000) in central Kazakhstan; Shevchenko (75, 000) on the Mangyshlak Peninsula; Rudnyi (101,000), Ermak, Arkalyk, and Ekibastuz in northern Kazakhstan; and Karatau, Kentau, and Tekeli in southern Kazakhstan. The population also increased in the older cities: Alma-Ata, Chim-kent (265, 000), Semipalatinsk (251,000), Ust’-Kamenogorsk (241,000), Pavlodar (208, 000), Dzhambul (205, 000), and Akti-ubinsk (159, 000).

Primitive communal system (from earliest times to the sixth century). Primitive man settled 300, 000 years ago in what is now Kazakhstan, during the early Stone Age. Lower Paleolithic campsites with crudely made stone implements have been discovered in the caves of the Karatau Mountains and in areas of the northern Cis-Balkhash. Flint scrapers and other articles found in the village of Kanai in eastern Kazakhstan attest to the settlement of primitive man during the Middle Paleolithic era. Evidence of primitive man can be traced continuously beginning with the Upper Paleolithic. During the Neolithic period, man began to use bows and make pottery and microlithic implements of various types. Pastoral livestock raising and hoe farming began in the fourth and third millennia B.C. (the Aeneolithic era). Remains of the Bronze Age culture (mid-second to early first milennium B.C.), which are very widespread, are represented primarily by relics of the Andronovo culture. The Andronovo tribes engaged in pastoral livestock raising, hoe farming, hunting, and fishing and were skilled in the production of bronze weapons and tools. The shift to copper and bronze work implements and the development of livestock raising and agriculture brought major social changes: the maternal clan was replaced by the paternal clan, and the rudiments of patriarchal family property appeared.

In the late stages of the Bronze Age, livestock-raising tribes began to separate; by the middle of the first millennium B.C., most tribes in the steppes shifted to nomadic livestock raising, which determined the specific characteristics of socioeconomic development in Kazakhstan for many centuries. Herodotus and other ancients called the tribes of this era the Asiatic Scythians. In Achaemenid cuneiform texts they are called by the collective name of Sacae. The Iranian-speaking Sacae tribes engaged in nomadic livestock raising and irrigated farming; they used iron and had commercial and cultural ties with neighboring tribes. Chiefs headed their tribal union. The tribal associations of the successors to the culture of the Sacae became established in the third and second centuries B.C. They were the tribal associations of the Usun, who occupied the territory of Semirech’e (from the Chu River to the Tien-Shan and from Lake Balkhash to Lake Issyk-Kul’), the tribes belonging to the Kangiui (Kangkha) state, who settled in regions of the Karatau and the middle course of the Syr Darya, and the tribes of Alani, who migrated nomad-ically from the western shores of the Aral to the northern shores of the Caspian. These tribes engaged primarily in nomadic livestock raising; crafts, including iron metallurgy, and, to some extent, farming, were developed. They had economic, political, and cultural ties with China, Transoxiana, and the Volga Region. Caravans passed through the lands of the Usun over the “Silk Route.” The Usun union was headed by the grand kunmi (bey), whose power had become hereditary. One kunmi, Tsilimi (first century B.C.), established a system under which “no one would dare graze his cattle on his [Tsilimi’s] pastures.” The usurpation of communal lands accelerated the disintegration of the primitive communal system and the formation of feudal class relations. The intensifying internecine struggle of the aristocracy for the power of the grand kunmi and the invasion by the Altai Turks led to the disintegration of the Usun association.

Development of feudal relations and formation of early feudal states (sixth to mid-15th centuries). The peoples of Kazakhstan bypassed the slaveholding stage of development. The primitive communal system was gradually replaced by patriarchal-feudal relations, which developed more intensively in the south and more slowly in the steppe regions. The first early feudal state, the Turkic Kaganate, took shape in the mid-sixth century A.D. In the early eighth century, the Turgesh state formed in the area between the Hi and Chu rivers, and in 766 the Karluk state formed. In the Turgesh Kaganate and, later, the Karluk Kaganate (766–940), feudal relations developed more intensively. Cities arose and became centers for crafts and trade—for example, Taraz (present-day Dzhambul). The cities’ economic ties with the surrounding nomadic tribes expanded, and money appeared (local coins were minted by the Turgesh).

Islam took hold in southern Kazakhstan from the eighth to tenth centuries. From the ninth through 11th centuries, western and southwestern Kazakhstan were part of the early feudal Oguz state. Caravans passed through Oguz territory to Transoxiana, Iran, China, the Caucasus, and the Volga Region. The Oguz Kaganate maintained ties with Rus’. Between the eighth and 11th centuries the northeastern and central areas of Kazakhstan were settled by the Turkic Kimak and Kipchak tribes. Eastern authors called this vast region Dasht-i-Kipchak (the Kipchak steppe). Feudal relations developed slowly there. The main occupation of the Kimak and Kipchak was livestock raising.

In the first half of the tenth century, Semirech’e was invaded by the Turkic Iagma tribe from eastern Turkestan. The Karakhanid feudal state was based on the Karluk Kaganate, which disintegrated under the blows of the Iagma. In the late tenth century and first half of the 11th, the Karakhanids created a strong feudal state, including Kashgaria, Semirech’e, and Transoxiana. In order to rule the conquered regions, the khan (tam-gach-khan) appointed viceroys (il-khans). A feudal appanage system was established: the khans granted their vassals the right to collect taxes from the population of given regions. Metayage, a new form of feudal exploitation, appeared, and in nomadic regions the institution of commendation emerged.

The consolidation of feudal relations was aided by the further spread of Islam. In the second half of the 11th century, in the context of an internecine struggle among feudal groups, wars began against the Seljuks, who had seized Transoxiana. The collapse of the Karakhanid state was completed by the invasion of Semirech’e during the 1130’s by the Khitans (Karakitais), who established the Karakitai state in Middle and Central Asia. Feudal wars in the Semirech’e brought a decline in trade, crafts, and urban culture. In the mid-12th century, Khwarazm split off from the weakened Karakitai state, but the Karakitais retained power in Semirech’e until the invasion of the Mongol Tatars.

Numerous architectural remains testify to the comparatively high level of economic and cultural development in Kazakhstan in the tenth to twelfth centuries (the mausoleums of Babadzhi-Khatun, tenth to 11th century, and Aisha-Bibi, 11th-12th century). In the river basins, which were the centers of irrigated farming, cities developed: Otrar, Sygnak, Sauran, Dzhent, and Zhankent on the Syr Darya; Taraz, Suzak, and Kumkent on the Talas; and Turtkul’, Aktiube, and Kulan on the Chu. Traces of large settlements have also survived in central Kazakhstan.

From 1219 to 1221, Kazakhstan was conquered by the Mongol Tatars and divided among the sons of Ghengis Khan. The Mongol invasion undermined the productive forces of Kazakhstan and retarded the formation of the Kazakh nationality. Under Mongol Tatar rule, Kazakhstan was part of the Golden Horde; after it broke up, Kazakhstan became part of the White Horde and Mogulistan. During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the White Horde, which had spread over an enormous area, broke up into several holdings; the largest were the Nogai Horde and the Uzbek Khanate, which included the main parts of Kazakhstan. The Nogai Horde occupied the region between the Iaik (Ural) and Volga rivers; the Uzbek Khanate occupied the area from the Aral Sea to the Iaik in the west, the Tobol in the north, and the Irtysh in the east. Ethnically, they united local Turkic-speaking tribes that had not yet formed a single nationality.

Formation of the Kazakh nationality and the Kazakh khanates (mid-15th to early 18th century). The population of the Uzbek khanate was collectively called the Uzbek Kazakhs. At that time, the terms “Uzbek” and “Kazakh” did not have a sufficiently clear ethnic meaning. Incessant internecine wars and intensified feudal oppression prompted mass migration of tribes from the Uzbek Khanate. Kazakh clans migrated nomadically to the western Semirech’e. The valleys of the Chu and Talas became the site of a mass influx from the Dasht-i-Kipchak. Semirech’e, which returned to life after the end of Mongol Tatar rule, was the center of a union of Kazakh tribes. It was here that the Kazakh khanate formed in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. By the beginning of the 16th century the protracted process of the formation of the Kazakh nationality, the main components of which were the local tribes that had been part of the early feudal states that had existed in Kazakhstan, was complete. Under Khan Kasym (ruled 1511–23) the Kazakh Khanate became strong and expanded its boundaries; the population reached 1 million. By the mid-16th century, after the breakup of the Nogai Horde and later of Mogulistan and the Siberian Khanate, the Kazakh clans that had previously belonged to these states joined the main body of their people.

The Kazakh Khanate was divided into hordes: the Great Horde (Semirech’e), the Middle Horde (central Kazakhstan), and the Little Horde (western Kazakhstan). Independent khanates formed in the hordes during the 17th century.

The leading branch of the Kazakh economy was nomadic and pastoral livestock raising. Farming was frequently primitive. Domestic trades became widespread; crafts developed slowly. Barter trade was conducted in the summer, when the livestock raisers migrated closer to the cities. Feudal relations were still entangled in numerous vestiges of the patriarchal-clan system. Among the Kazakh livestock raisers land was used as pasture. In effect, the large livestock-owning feudal lords were the owners of the pastures.

Kazakh society consisted of two main classes: the feudal lords (khans, sultans, batyrs, bais, and khodzhas) and feudally dependent peasants (sharua). Patriarchal slaves, or kuls, constituted a special stratum. Legally, the peasantry was not enserfed, but since they were dependent on the feudal lords, they paid rent in produce of various forms, in addition to the corvee. The poorest stratum of the peasantry, the kedei, who were not provided with draft and productive livestock, went into bondage to the bais, resorting to the “aid” of wealthy kinsmen. The class struggle between the feudal lords and the peasants who were dependent upon them was manifested in various forms, such as migration, cattle theft, and direct clashes. Peasants who broke away from their own aul communes fell into dependence on other feudal lords. Along with the diverse norms of customary law (adat), certain norms of Muslim feudal law (sharia) also operated. The Zhety-Zhargy common law code, which defined the main principles of the feudal legal order, was compiled in the early 11th century, under Khan Tauk.

Two tendencies, popular and feudal, were manifested in the development of the culture of the Kazakh people. Those who came from the people—the akyns (folk poets and singers) and zhyraus (singers and improvisers)—created a number of heroic epic works and narrative poems about social and everyday life that were transmitted orally from generation to generation (Koblandy, Kyz-Zhibek, Er-Targyn, and Kozy-Korpesh and Bai-an-Slu). Between the 15th and 17th centuries, written literature was largely confined to religious books. A valuable source of late 16th-century Kazakh written history is Zhamigi-at-tavarikh (a collection of chronicles) by Kadyrgali Kosunula. Muhammad Khaidar, the author of the historical work Tarikh-i-Rashidi, was an outstanding writer.

Unification with Russia; rise and development of capitalist relations (18th through second half of the 19th century). Kazakhstan experienced great difficulties in the early 18th century. The Kazakh khanates fragmented, and feudal internecine warfare was incessant. The most influential of the Kazakh khans was Abulkhair, whose power extended to the greater part of the Little Horde. In the Middle Horde were the khanates of Semeke-khan and Kushuk-khan and the independent holdings of the sultans Barak and Abulmambet. By this time the Russian state bordered on Kazakhstan. The economic and political interests of Russia prompted the Russian government to strengthen its ties with Kazakhstan and, through it, to develop trade with Middle Asia. In the 17th century the Russian cities of Iaitskii Gorodok (Ural’sk) and Gur’ev took shape in western Kazakhstan.

The Dzungarian Khanate represented a great danger to Kazakhstan in the early 18th century. The Kazakh hosts inflicted serious defeats on the troops of the Dzungarian feudal lords in 1710, 1728, and 1729, but the attacks were repeated; the era went down in the history of Kazakhstan as the “years of great disaster.” As early as 1726, Khan Abulkhair requested Russian citizenship in the name of the elders of the Little Horde. In 1731 the request was granted. This was the beginning of Kazakhstan’s voluntary unification with Russia. In 1735, on the request of Abulkhair, the tsarist government began construction of a fort at the mouth of the Or’ River (present-day Orsk), which played an important role in strengthening Russia’s influence in Kazakhstan. Between 1731 and 1740, various khans and sultans of the Middle Horde became Russian subjects. In 1741–42, Dzungarian troops again invaded the Middle and Little hordes, but the intervention of the Russian border authorities forced them to withdraw.

The voluntary acceptance of Russian citizenship by the Kazakhs of the Little Horde—and in 1740 by those of the Middle Horde—had a progressive impact on the historical fate of the Kazakh people. As early as the second half of the 18th century, social relations in Kazakhstan developed under the perceptibly growing influence of the economy of Russia. Kazakhstan’s trade ties with Russia were strengthened. The construction of fortified lines and cities and the increase of the Russian population in border regions were conducive to the growth of agriculture and crafts. At the same time, the tsarist authorities carried out colonialist measures in Kazakhstan, where the tyranny of petty officials ruled. The Kazakh feudal lords continued their usurpation of land.

In the mid-18th century, the struggle among feudal groups intensified. As a result, Khan Abulkhair was killed (1748). His son, Nuraly, who became khan of the Little Horde, relied on the support of the tsarist administration and attempted without success to extend his power to a portion of the Middle Horde, as well as to Khiva. The Great Horde, much of which was under the dominion of the Dzungarians, was threatened with seizure by Manchurian feudal lords after China smashed Dzungaria (1758). The southern parts of Kazakhstan, including the city of Chimkent, were captured by the Kokand Khanate.

An important result of the unification of Kazakhstan with Russia was the increased closeness of Russian and Kazakh toilers. In particular, this was manifested in the Peasant War of 1773–75, led by E. I. Pugachev, in which Kazakhs of the Little Horde and, in part, the Middle Horde participated. An uprising of Kazakhs led by Srym Datov took place in the Little Horde between 1783 and 1797.

In the first half of the 19th century, fundamental changes took place in the economy of Kazakhstan. Trade relations became more active. Livestock products were sent to Russia, and grain and industrial goods were brought into Kazakhstan. There was a notable growth in agriculture. According to incomplete data, 5, 330 farms in the Little Horde had a cultivated area of about 24, 000 desiatinas (about 26, 160 hectares). Livestock feed was stored for winter on a substantial scale. Great changes took place in the political system of the Kazakhs.

After the death of khans Bukei (1815) and Valii (1819) of the Middle Horde, the power of the khans was abolished by the tsarist government, and a new system of administration was introduced in 1822. The Statutes on the Siberian Kirghiz, developed by M. M. Speranskii, provided for the creation of eight external districts headed by district prikazes (departments). This led to the emergence of the cities of Aiaguz, Kokchetav, Karkaralinsk, and Atbasar on the steppe. The districts were divided into volosts (small rural districts) headed by volost managers. The administrative aul, headed by an elder, included 50–70 kibitkas (nomads’ tents).

In 1824 the power of the khans was abolished in the Little Horde. The territory of the horde was divided into three parts headed by sultan managers. The territorial administration system was introduced, limiting the rights of the tribal elders. The establishment of the new system of government was carried out in the interests of tsarism and was colonialist in nature. However, despite the colonialist policy of tsarism, progressive changes took place in Kazakh society; productive forces developed and the class structure changed. The rights of the sultans, bais, and batyrs were limited and the acquisition of new kuls (slaves) prohibited, leading to the disappearance of patriarchal slavery.

The people of southern Kazakhstan were under the yoke of the Kokand and Khiva feudal lords, who ruined the Kazakh auls. Many auls migrated to be under the protection of the Russian forts. In 1831, 7, 500 Kazakh families of the Great Horde migrated. In 1821 the peasants of the southern areas of Kazakhstan, rising up against the oppression of the Kokand beys, took Chimkent and Sairam by storm. The uprising was harshly suppressed. Certain Kazakh khans sought support from the khans of Middle Asia and opposed Russia. The most protracted feudal-monarchist movement of the 1820’s to 1840’s was that of Sultan Kenesara Kasymov, who strove to become the absolute feudal ruler of Kazakhstan.

In the early 19th century the Bukei Khanate arose in the area between the Urals and the Volga. In the 1820’s and 1830’s, land relations became more acute and class and colonial oppression increased. This provoked a mass peasant uprising (1836–37) under the leadership of I. Taimanov and M. Utemisov. The uprising was suppressed. After the death of Khan Dzhangir (1845), the tsarist government abolished the khan’s power in the Bukei Khanate. The tsarist authorities established fortified lines on the Syr Darya, Irgiz, and Turgai rivers. The Raim fortification was built in 1847; Fort Kazaly, a year later. In the 1840’s the frequency of predatory raids of bands from the Kokand and Khiva khanates increased. The Kazakhs addressed a request for aid to the Russian authorities. This served as the formal basis for the organization in 1853 of a campaign against the Kokand fortress of Ak-Mechet’ by V. A. Perovskii, governor-general of Orenburg and Samara; the fortress was captured by tsarist troops and made into a base. In the mid-19th century, tsarism was opposed by the Syr Darya Kazakhs. After the suppression of this action, a movement began on the coast of the Aral Sea. In 1858, in the region of Aulie-Ata, Kazakhs and Kirghiz rose up against the Kokand beys. The uprising spread rapidly to southern Kazakhstan, but it was defeated.

In 1845 the nomadic Kazakhs in the Kapal area voluntarily accepted Russian citizenship. In 1846 the part of Semirech’e up to the Hi River in which Kazakhs of the Great Horde lived became part of the Russian state. After the founding of the Vernyi fortification (now Alma-Ata) in 1854, there was an increase in the number of Russian cossacks and peasants migrating from Western Siberia to Semirech’e. The increase in Russian influence troubled the Kokand khan, who sent a force of 20, 000 men against Vernyi in the fall of 1860. In October of that year, a detachment of Russian troops supported by Kazakhs routed the forces of Khudoiar-khan, the ruler of Kokand, at the Uzun-Agach natural landmark. As a result, all of Semirech’e passed to Russia.

The unification of the Kazakh lands with Russia was completed in the 1860’s. The tsarist authorities carried out a reform of the administration of the region. In 1867, Semirech’e and Syr Darya regions were created in the Turkestan governor-generalship; in 1868, the Ural’sk and Turgai regions were created as part of the Orenburg governor-generalship, and Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk regions were created in the Western Siberia governor-generalship (later the steppe governor-generalship). The regions were divided into districts, which in turn were divided into volosts and then into administrative auls (120–200 kibitkas each). All land was proclaimed state property. Changes were also introduced in legal procedure. The reforms of 1867–68 provoked discontent among all strata of Kazakh society: the sultans and bais were dissatisfied with the restriction of their rights, the elders with the breaking of their authority in the clans, and the popular masses with the further intensification of colonial oppression, increased taxes, and restrictions on land tenure. Uprisings erupted in Ural’sk and Turgai regions and Mangyshlak. The feudal leaders and Muslim clergy exploited the discontent of the masses for their own class goals. The uprisings did not spread and were suppressed.

The implementation of reforms helped draw Kazakhstan further into the system of the all-Russian economy. One of the important factors in the development of the productive forces was the migration of Russian peasants to Kazakhstan. More than 500 Russian and Ukrainian villages sprang up in the steppe regions of Kazakhstan during the 1880’s and 1890’s. The main occupation of the migrants was farming. The countryside settled by the migrants developed along capitalist lines. The growth of commodity production also prepared the conditions for the gradual penetration of capitalist relations into the Kazakh auls, and this accelerated the process of class stratification. However, patriarchal-feudal relations remained dominant. Trade and commodity-money relations grew, particularly after the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad (1891–1904). Transit trade routes passed through Kazakhstan. In many parts of the region, exchanges gave way to large fairs. According to the data of the 1897 census, 40, 000 people were engaged in trade in Kazakhstan; in Petropavlovsk alone, 446 trade institutions were in operation (with a yearly turnover of 4 million rubles). Trade was usurious, with Russian merchants and local livestock dealers engaged in usury.

The development of cities and the increase in their population were important to the culture of the Kazakh people. The progressive culture and science of Russia influenced the activity of such Kazakh proponents of enlightenment as Chokan Va-likhanov, Ibrai Altynsarin, and Abai Kunanbaev.

Period of imperialism and bourgeois-democratic revolutions in Russia (1900–17). Kazakhstan remained a colonial market and source of raw materials for Russian industry until the Great October Socialist Revolution. In the early 20th century, the penetration of Kazakhstan’s economy not only by Russian capital but also by English, French, and American capital began; capitalist production was founded on this basis. Most enterprises were small. Foreign capital was invested primarily in the mining industry. Oil drilling began in Emba Region in 1911. The development of industry, the construction of the Siberian and Orenburg-Tashkent railroads (built in 1905–06), the organization of bank credit, and the increased transportation on the Irtysh stimulated the growth of commodity-capitalist farming and livestock raising and the destruction of the feudal seclusion and natural economy of the aul. The use of hired labor expanded on the farms of the bais, who were the main suppliers of the livestock sent to the Russian and foreign markets. In 1913, large-scale industry employed about 20, 000 workers—refugees from the poverty of the aul and skilled proletarians who had come from the industrial centers of Russia. A Kazakh bourgeoisie and a national proletariat were taking shape. The capitalist structure that was developing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the social and cultural changes that accompanied it accelerated the formation of the Kazakh bourgeois nation; however, this process was not completed.

The first spontaneous economic strikes in Kazakhstan occurred in the 1890’s. At the beginning of the 20th century, such strikes occurred more frequently and united Kazakh and Russian workers. Between 1900 and 1903, there were workers’ strikes at the Spassk Copper Plant and the Ekibastuz, Karaganda, and Uspenskii mines. The first Marxists in Kazakhstan were the exiled Russian revolutionaries V. G. Kharitonov, P. M. Kashinskii, Z. V. Guseva, and P. P. Pokrovskii. The first political strike in Kazakhstan was held on May 1, 1903, on the initiative of the Marxist circle in Ural’sk. The strike movement gathered force during the revolution of 1905–07. In December 1905, under the influence of revolutionaries, the workers of the Uspenskii Copper Mine formed the Russian-Kirghiz Union; the leaders included P. N. Topornin, I. Kaskabaev, and A. Baichagirov. In 1905–07 there were peasant disturbances in Turgai, Semipalatinsk, and Ural’sk regions.

In an attempt to reduce the urgency of the agrarian problem in the interior provinces of Russia, the tsarist government began mass resettlement of Russian peasants to Kazakhstan. Between 1906 and 1912, during the Stolypin agrarian reform, more than 438, 000 farms were moved to Akmolinsk, Turgai, Ural’sk, and Semipalatinsk regions. In Kazakhstan, 17.4 million desiatinas (about 18, 966, 000 ha) of land—primarily land that had already been opened up by the Kazakh population—were set aside for the migrant reserve. The migration policies of tsarism had an effect on agrarian relations in the aul. The bai leadership, supported by the tsarist administration, seized communal lands and secured them as their property. This double plundering of lands —by the tsarist authorities and the bais —ruined the masses of the Kazakh poor. The colonialist policy of the tsarist authorities was aimed at russification of the Kazakh people and hindering the development of its national economy and culture. During World War I the massive withdrawals of agricultural products and livestock, the increase in taxes and imposts, high prices, and the mobilization in 1916 of the Kazakh population for rearguard work provoked strikes among the workers and disturbances among the peasants. In 1916 isolated actions grew into a national liberation uprising that encompassed all of Kazakhstan. The uprising was particularly lengthy in the Turgai Region, where the insurgents were headed by the popular batyr Aman-gel’dy Imanov.

After the February Revolution of 1917, dual power was established in Kazakhstan, as in the rest of Russia. In March soviets of working people’s deputies and soviets of soldiers’ deputies were formed in Vernyi, Semipalatinsk, Petropavlovsk, Kustanai, Aktiubinsk, Akmolinsk, and Perovsk; in March and April 1917, most of them combined in the united soviets of working people’s and soldiers’ deputies. Soviets of peasants’ deputies and soviets of Kirghiz (Kazakh) deputies were elected at the peasant congresses held in April and May. Initially the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries (SR’s) dominated the soviets. Bodies of the bourgeois Provisional Government, such as the Turkestan Committee (April 7 [20]), regional and district committees of the Provisional Government, executive committees, and commissariats in the cities and volosts, formed at the same time as the soviets. Supported by the Russian bourgeoisie and the Kazakh bourgeois nationalists, these bodies continued the antipopular policies of tsarism. The Kazakh feudal bais and bourgeois nationalists formed the counterrevolutionary Alash party in July 1917. In August and September the Provisional Government imposed martial law in Semirech’e Region and the Bukei Steppe. By the fall of 1917 the Bolsheviks had won leadership in the Orenburg, Perovsk, and Petropavlovsk soviets. In early October the Semipalatinsk Regional Congress of Peasants’ Deputies passed a resolution on the necessity of turning power over to the Soviets. The first detachments of the Red Guard in Kazakhstan were organized. During September and October 1917 strikes and demonstrations were held under Bolshevik slogans in certain cities of Kazakhstan and at stations of the Orenburg-Tashkent railroad. Agrarian insurrections on the Kazakh and Russian poor took place in Temir, Kokchetav, and Petropavlovsk districts, in Semirech’e and Semipalatinsk regions, and in the Bukei Steppe.

Period of the Great October Socialist Revolution, Civil War, and military intervention (1917–20). Because of the low level of socioeconomic development in Kazakhstan, the struggle for the establishment and triumph of Soviet power proceeded amid particularly complex circumstances. In Syr Darya Region (November 1917), Akmolinsk Region (November 1917-January 1918), and the Bukei Steppe (December 1917), Soviet power was established peacefully; during January and February 1918 it was established in Turgai Region and in Semipalatinsk as a result of an armed struggle. The anti-Soviet revolt of the hetman Dutov in November 1917 in Orenburg Territory, which was supported by the Kazakh bourgeois nationalists—Alash-Orda supporters, Mensheviks, and SR’s—was quickly suppressed. On Jan. 18 (31), 1918, Orenburg was liberated by detachments of Baltic sailors and Red Guards from Petrograd, the Volga Region, Middle Asia, and Kazakhstan. Led by the Bolsheviks, the toiling people of Vernyi rose up on March 2–3. Power in the region passed to the Semirech’e Military Revolutionary Committee. In Ural’sk, the Soviet took power in January 1918 but was not able to consolidate it; the counterrevolutionary “Host Government” of the Ural Cossack Host existed along with it. After the establishment of Soviet power, the old apparatus was broken and a new Soviet state apparatus created. District and region congresses of Soviets were held. On the basis of the Decree on Land, large landholdings were confiscated and given to the Kazakh and Russian peasants. By the decree of May 11, 1918, of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, signed by V. I. Lenin, large industrial enterprises were nationalized. The preparation of Soviet self-government for Kazakhstan began. Two southern regions, Syr Darya and Semirech’e, became part of the Turkestan ASSR, which was created in April 1918.

In the spring and summer of 1918, most of the area was captured by the interventionists and White Guards, with whom the Kazakh bourgeois nationalists acted in concert. The gangs of the hetman Dutov, who had again captured Orenburg on July 3, cut off part of Kazakhstan and all of the Turkestan ASSR from the center of Russia. Fronts formed at Orenburg (also called the Northern Turkestan (Front), Semirech’e, and Ural’sk (the southern flank of the Eastern Front). Units of the Red Army formed in the Soviet areas (Syr Darya Region, most of Semirech’e and Turgai regions, and the Bukei Steppe). Russians, Kazakhs, and Uighurs fought in their ranks. The Communists performed selfless work (see below: Communist Party of Kazakhstan).

Soviet Russia offered all possible aid to the toiling people of Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. In the fall of 1918, on V. I. Lenin’s instructions, a large consignment of guns and ammunition was delivered to the Orenburg front via Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and the Ustiurt steppes under the direction of the commissar of the Steppe Territory, A. T. Dzhangil’din. Partisan detachments, particularly that of Amangel’dy Imanov in Turgai Region, operated in the enemy’s rear. On Jan. 22, 1919, as a result of a combined offensive, Soviet troops of the Eastern and Orenburg fronts freed Orenburg, and on January 24, Ural’sk was liberated. Direct ties were reestablished with the central areas of the RSFSR.

In April 1919 the White Guards seized Aktiubinsk once more, cutting off the Soviet areas of Kazakhstan from the central parts of the country for a second time. Soviet forces withdrew toward the Kandagach railroad station. In late April the White Guards besieged Ural’sk. The situation on the Semirech’e Front also became difficult. The Red Army was greatly aided by partisans. Massive popular uprisings took place under the leadership of the underground party organizations. In Kustanai District the insurgents, led by the Military Revolutionary Staff (L. I. Taran, M. G. Letunov, and N. I. Miliaev) liberated Kustanai on April 5 and, after a forced retreat from the city, continued the struggle. In the spring of 1919 a mass uprising against the White Guards, led by the Bolsheviks, took place in the village of Mariinskoe, Akmolinsk Region. N. M. Irchenko was elected commander of the insurgent detachments. The insurrectionists were joined by the peasants of dozens of villages. It was only in May 1919 that the White Guards succeeded in suppressing the uprising. In northern Semirech’e, the inhabitants of 12 Soviet settlements surrounded by the White Guard fought from October 1918 through October 1919. Their heroic resistance came to be called the Cherkasskaia Defense. In northeastern Semirech’e, the Partisan detachments of the Red Mountain Eagles of Tarbagatai waged a struggle against the White Guards. The rout of the main White Guard forces of Admiral Kolchak by Units of the Red Army on the eastern front facilitated and hastened the liberation of the northern and eastern areas of Kazakhstan. Soviet troops of the Turkestan Front, which was formed in August 1919 (commander M. V. Frunze, member of the Military Revolutionary Council V. V. Kuibyshev), attacking from the north while the troops of the Turkestan ASSR attacked from the south, smashed Kolchak’s southern army and came together on September 13. The liberation of the western areas of Kazakhstan was completed in early 1920. The Semirech’e Front was eliminated in March 1920. The remains of the White Guard forces fled to western China. The Red Army, supported by the toiling people of Kazakhstan, put down rebellions in the city of Vernyi (June) and Semipalatinsk, Ust’-Kamenogorsk, and other districts (July and August).

The formation and development of the Kazakh Soviet state is inseparably associated with V. I. Lenin. On July 10, 1919, Lenin signed a decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR on the formation of the Revolutionary Committee for the Administration of Kirghiz Territory, the name of Kazakhstan until April 1925. S. S. Pestkovskii, A. T. Dzhangil’din, S. M. Mendeshev, and A. Aitiev were members of the Revolutionary Committee. On Aug. 26, 1920, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR adopted the Decree on the Formation of the Autonomous Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, signed by V. I. Lenin and M. I. Kalinin, making Kazakhstan part of the RSFSR, with its capital in Orenburg. The territories of Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, Turgai, and Ural’sk regions and the parts of the Transcaspian Region and Astrakhan and Orenburg provinces inhabited by Kazakhs became part of the republic. Guided by the Kirghiz Regional Bureau of the RCP(B), which was formed according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP(B) of Apr. 30, 1920, Communists performed extensive, selfless work. The Constituent Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan was held in Orenburg, Oct. 4–12, 1920. Central Executive Committee (chairman, S. M. Mendeshev) and the Council of People’s Commissars (chairman, V. A. Radus-Zen’-kovich) of the republic were elected at the congress. Administratively, the republic was divided into Akmolinsk, Bukei (part of the former Astrakhan Province), Orenburg-Turgai (previously Turgai and Ural’sk regions and part of Orenburg Province), and Semipalatinsk provinces and Adaev Raion (part of the former Transcaspian Region). In 1921, Orenburg-Turgai Province was divided into Aktiubinsk, Kustanai, Orenburg, and Turgai provinces; Turgai Province was eliminated in the same year and made part of Kustanai Province.

Socialist construction, 1921–40. The Civil War undermined the economy of Kazakhstan. In 1920, industry, which was in any case poorly developed, provided about one-fifth of the prewar output; grain production decreased by a factor of 3, and the livestock population diminished considerably. In the auls, patriarchal-feudal relations were still dominant. The Communist Party and Soviet power did a great deal of work toward the rehabilitation of the economy. In 1921 the surplus-appropriation system was replaced by the tax in kind; the nomadic and seminomadic population, except for the bais, was exempted from taxes on meat. As a result of the land and water reform of 1921–22, more than 470, 000 ha of land that had been seized from the toiling Kazakh and Kirghiz masses by the tsarist government and kulak colonizers was returned to them. With the fraternal aid of the RSFSR, the Ukraine, and Turkestan, the consequences of the drought and famine of 1921 were overcome. A system of land tenure was established for the nomadic and seminomadic population through the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR (April 1924). The Fourth Congress of Soviets of the republic (Jan. 5–10, 1924) discussed and adopted as a basis the draft constitution of the republic.

In 1924 and 1925, as a result of the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the territory of Syr Darya and Dzhetysu (formerly Semirech’e) regions settled by Kazakhs became part of the Kirghiz ASSR. The Fifth All-Kazakhstan Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan (Apr. 15–19, 1925) restored the historically accurate name of the Kazakh people. The republic was renamed the Kazakh ASSR. The captial was moved from Orenburg to Kzyl-Orda. Orenburg Province became part of the RSFSR. Under the new administrative-territorial division, the Kazakh ASSR consisted of Akmolinsk, Aktiubinsk, Dzhetysu, Semipalatinsk, and Ural’sk provinces (the former Bukei Province was part of the republic, with the status of a district), and also Kustanai Okrug and Adaev District, which were under the direct jurisdiction of the government of the republic. From 1925 through 1930 the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast was part of the Kazakh ASSR. By 1928 the sown area and gross harvest of grains and raw cotton exceeded the 1913 level; livestock, except for hogs and horses, exceeded the 1916 level. The output of large-scale industry was 43 percent greater in 1928 than in 1913.

In the transition to socialism, the Kazakh people bypassed the capitalist stage of development. This process required the implementation of a number of specific measures aimed at strengthening Soviet power and eliminating patriarchal-feudal relations in the aul The Sovietization of the Kazakh aul —the aggregate of measures to strengthen and make more active the work of aul Soviets and finally rid them of the bais, to enlist the toiling masses in Soviet construction, and to strengthen party leadership of the activity of the Soviets—was carried out from 1926 to 1929 and was of great importance. As a result of the repartition of arable land and hayfields (1926–27), poor and middle peasants received 1, 250, 000 ha of arable land and 1, 360, 000 ha of haying land that had previously been controlled by the bais. In 1928, 145, 000 head of livestock, agricultural implements, and other property was confiscated from the major bais and transferred to poor and middle peasant farms. A blow had been struck against the bai class; the middle peasants became the central figure in the aul. More than 300 kolkhozes and five sovkhozes were established. The Koshchi (Plowman) union, which was established in 1920 and united large numbers of hired farm laborers, poor peasants, and some middle peasants, was strengthened.

Measures were taken to draw representatives of the native population into the state apparatus on a broader scale. In May 1929 the city of Alma-Ata became the capital of Kazakhstan. In connection with the division of the USSR into raions, provinces and districts were eliminated and division into okrugs and raions introduced in Kazakhstan in 1928. In 1929 there were 13 okrugs in Kazakhstan: Adaev, Akmolinsk, Aktiubinsk, Alma-Ata, Gur’ev, Karkaralinsk, Kzyl-Orda, Kustanai, Pavlodar, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk, Syr Darya, and Ural’sk.

The crucial element in the socialist transformation of Kazakhstan, as in the rest of the country, was industrialization. In the first and second five-year plans (1928–37), 2 billion rubles of the Union budget were invested in industry. Engineers, technicians, and workers from other parts of the country were sent to construction projects and enterprises in Kazakhstan and passed on their experience to Kazakh workers. Moscow, Leningrad, and other industrial centers provided support to the industry of Kazakhstan. Miners from the Donbas worked in Karaganda, oil workers from Baku and Groznyi instructed oil workers of Emba, and machine builders from Kharkov and Sverdlovsk installed new machinery in numerous Kazakh enterprises. During the prewar five-year plans about 200 large-scale industrial enterprises, including the Chimkent Lead Plant and the Balkhash Copper Smelting Works, were built with the fraternal aid of all peoples of the USSR; the country’s third coalfield was created in Karaganda; Turksib (the Turkestan-Siberia railroad) and the Karaganda-Balkhash, Rubtsovka-Ridder, Chimkent-Lenger, and Ural’sk-Iletsk railroad lines were built; and old enterprises were fundamentally reconstructed. Total industrial output in 1940 was 7.8 times greater than the 1913 level, and the output of large-scale industry was 19.5 times greater.

In 1929 the mass kolkhoz movement unfolded in Kazakhstan (in May 1930 the kolkhozes united 28.5 percent of peasant farms). Through this movement, former nomads were settled and a system of land tenure was established for them; the kulaks and bais were eliminated as a class. In 1937 kolkhozes made up 97.5 percent of peasant farms. In 1940 there were 41, 300 tractors (in terms of standard 15-hp units) and 11, 800 grain-harvesting combines operating in the republic. The planted area exceeded 6.8 million ha (4.2 million in 1913). As a result of the success of socialist construction, Kazakhstan changed from a region of nomadic livestock raising, a colonial region with few industrial centers and cultural centers, into an industrial-agrarian republic with a diversified, highly developed industry and large-scale mechanized agriculture. The working class of the USSR provided invaluable aid to Kazakhstan. More than 1, 200 dvad-tsatipiatitysiachniki (Twenty-five Thousanders) became carriers of party influence in the Kazakh auls and villages and organizers of collective labor in agriculture. In February 1932 the Kazakh ASSR was divided into six oblasts (okrugs were eliminated as early as 1930): Alma-Ata, Aktiubinsk, Vostochnyi Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Zapadnyi Kazakhstan (since 1962, Ural’sk), and Iuzhnyi Kazakhstan (since 1962, Chimkent).

In accordance with the 1936 Constitution of the USSR, the Kazakh ASSR was made a Union republic. The Extraordinary Tenth Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan (March 1937) adopted the constitution of the Kazakh SSR. New oblasts formed as larger units were broken into small ones: in 1936, Kustanai and Severnyi Kazakhstan oblasts; in 1938, Gur’ev, Kzyl-Orda, and Pavlodar oblasts; and in 1939, Dzhambul, Semipalatinsk, and Akmolinsk (since 1961, Tselinograd) oblasts.

A cultural revolution was carried out in Kazakhstan; illiteracy was eliminated, previous tribal and feudal vestiges basically disappeared, skilled cadres of the national working class and people’s intelligentsia emerged, and higher educational institutions, scientific and research institutions, libraries, and clubs were established. Soviet Kazakh literature and art developed. The enlistment of women in all areas of socialist construction was a great achievement of the cultural revolution. As a result of the socialist transformations, exploiting classes and the exploitation of one person by another were eliminated, and unemployment and poverty disappeared. In the Kazakh SSR, as in the rest of the country, socialism was, on the whole, built. The Kazakh people consolidated into a socialist nation under the conditions of the Soviet system.

Great Patriotic War (1941–45) and the postwar period. Kazakhstan sent hundreds of thousands of fighting men to the front during the Great Patriotic War; two-thirds of the membership of the Communist Party and Komsomol of the republic fought in the Soviet Army. The large military units formed in Kazakhstan took part in crucial battles between 1941 and 1945. The 316th (Eighth Guard) Infantry Division, commanded by I. V. Panfilov, became famous in the fighting near Moscow. The deeds of 28 heroes of the Panfilov division have been recorded for all time in the heroic history of the Soviet people. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 512 people from Kazakhstan, and four—the pilots T. Ia. Begel’dinov, L. I. Beda, S. D. Luganskii, and I. F. Pavlov—were twice Heroes of the Soviet Union. More than 60, 000 people were awarded orders and medals for their feats of combat. More than 140 enterprises evacuated from western regions of the USSR and more than 1 million evacuated Soviet citizens were accommodated in the republic. During the war a number of large-scale enterprises and new mines and pits were put into service. The republic provided a substantial proportion of the Union’s total output of copper, molybdenum, lead, and coal. Ammunition and foodstuffs flowed continuously to the army. Kazakhstan’s industrial output grew considerably during the war. More than 1 billion rubles and hundreds of thousands of poods of grain were placed in the Defense Fund (1 pood = 16.38 kg). Thousands of working people of the rear guard were awarded orders and medals of the USSR. The new oblasts of Kochetav and Taldy-Kurgan (eliminated in 1961, reestablished in 1967) were formed in 1944.

During the postwar decades the Kazakh people, along with all the other peoples of the country, took part in the completion of the construction of socialism and of communist society. With other eastern areas of the USSR, Kazakhstan aided in the rehabilitation of the industry and agriculture of oblasts and republics that had suffered from fascist German occupation. Kazakhstan provided support to 12 cities and 45 raions that had been freed from Hitler’s invaders, sending specialists, industrial workers, and equipment, food, and clothing. Under conditions of mutual socialist aid of the peoples of the USSR, the toiling masses of Kazakhstan further developed the economy and culture of the republic. Kazakhstan became a huge construction site, and its rate of development accelerated. In areas that were still uninhabited, new industrial complexes took shape, new branches of industry emerged, large-scale industry and power engineering were built, and railroad, motor-vehicle, air, and water routes established. The Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a number of resolutions on the major problems of Kazakhstan’s economy. Large-scale measures were implemented to develop agriculture, including the exploitation of virgin and unused lands. This was carried out with the aid of all the peoples of the USSR. Kazakhstan became one of the country’s leading areas for grain and meat production (see below: Economy).

On Oct. 20, 1956, the Kazakh SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin for its success in developing virgin lands. Between 1960 and 1965, five northern oblasts (Kokchetav, Kustanai, Pavlodar, Severnyi Kazakhstan, and Tselinograd) were united in Tselinnyi Krai; Zapadryi Kazakhstan Krai (Aktiubinsk, Gur’ev, and Ural’sk oblasts) and Iuzhnyi; Kazakhstan Krai (Dzhambul, Kzyl-Orda, and Chimkent oblasts) also existed during 1962–64. Turgai Oblast was formed in 1970. In 1971 the industrial output of the Kazakh SSR was approximately 3 times greater than the output of all of tsarist Russia.

On Aug. 27, 1970, the Kazakh SSR was awarded the Order of the October Revolution for its great services in the struggle for the victory of socialist revolution, for the heroism it displayed in the fighting against the enemies of the homeland, and for its achievements in communist construction. As of Jan. 1, 1972, 1, 519 people of Kazakhstan were awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor for their efforts in socialist and communist construction; N. Aldabergenov, I. Zhakhaev, and Zh. Kuanyshbaev were twice Heroes of Socialist Labor. On Dec. 29, 1972, the republic was awarded the Order of the Friendship of Peoples to mark the 50th anniversary of the USSR.

SOURCES

Valikhanov, Ch. Ch. Sobr. soch. v 5 tt., vols. 1–1. Alma-Ata, 1961–68.
Revoliutsionnoe dvizhenie v Kazakhstane v 1905–1907 gg. (sb. dokumentov i materialov). Alma-Ata, 1955.
Pobeda Velikoi Oktiabr’skoi sotsialisticheskoi revoliutsii v Kazakhstane 1917–1918 gg.: sb. dokumentov i materialov. Alma-Ata, 1957.
Obrazovanie Kazakhskoi ASSR: Sb. dokumentov i materialov. Alma-Ata, 1957.
Vosstanie 1916 g. v Srednei Azii i Kazakhstane: Sb. dokumentov. Moscow, 1960.
Kazakhsko-russkie otnosheniia v XVI-XVIII vv.: Sb. dokumentov i materialov. Alma-Ata, 1961.
Sotsialisticheskoe stroitel’stvo v Kazakhstane v vosstanovitel’nyi period (1921–1925): Sb. dokumentov i materialov. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Inostrannaia voennaia interventsiia i grazhdanskaia voina v Srednei Azii i Kazakhstane: Dokumenty i materialy, vols. 1–2. Alma-Ata, 1963–64.
Kazakhstan v period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny Sovetskogo Soiuza 1941–1945: Sb. dokumentov i materialov, vols. 1–2. Alma-Ata, 1964-67.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. O Srednei Azii i Kazakhstane. Tashkent, 1960.
Istoriia Kazakhskoi SSR [2nd ed.], vols. 1–2. Alma-Ata, 1957–63.
Istoriia Kazakhskoi SSR: Epokha sotsializma. Alma-Ata, 1967.
Nusupbekov, A. N. Ob”edinenie kazakhskikh zemel’ v Kazakhskoi Sovetskoi Sotsialisticheskoi Respublike. Alma-Ata, 1953.
Kuchkin, A. P. Sovetizatsiia kazakhskogo aula: 1926–1929 gg. Moscow, 1962.
Suleimenov, B. Agrarnyi vopros v Kazakhstane poslednei treti XIX-nachala XX v. (1867–1907 gg.). Alma-Ata, 1963.
Dakhshleiger, G. F. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie preobrazovaniia v aule i v derevne Kazakhstana (1921–1929). Alma-Ata, 1965.
Nusupbekov, A. N. Formirovanie i razvitie sovetskogo rabochego klassa v Kazakhstane (1917–1940 gg.). Alma-Ata, 1966.
Elagin, A. S. Sotsialisticheskoe stroitel’stvo v Kazakhstane v gody grazhdanskoi voiny (1918–1920 gg.). Alma-Ata, 1966.
Pobeda Sovetskoi vlasti v Srednei Azii i Kazakhstane.Tashkent, 1967.
Pokrovskii, S. N. Razgrom inostrannykh voennykh interventov i vnutren nei kontrrevoliutsii v Kazakhstane (1918–1920). Alma-Ata, 1967.
Tursunbaev, A. B. Kazakhskii aul v trekh revoliutsiiakh. Alma-Ata, 1967.
Kazakhstan v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine: Ocherki, fasc. 1. Alma-Ata, 1968.
Beisembaev, S. B. Lenin i Kazakhstan (1897–1924 gg.). Alma-Ata, 1968.
Baishev, S. B. V. I. Lenin i Sovetskii Kazakhstan, 2nd ed. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Kenzhebaev, S. M. Sovety v bor’be za pobedu sotsializma. Alma-Ata, 1969.
Zimanov, S. Z. V. I. Lenin i sovetskaia natsional’naia gosudarstvennost’, v Kazakhstane. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Pokrovskii, S. N. Lenin i pobeda Sovetskoi vlasti v Kazakhstane. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Kozybaev, M. K. Kazakhstan—arsenal fronta. Alma-Ata, 1970.
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A. N. NUSUPBEKOV and S. N. POKROVSKII

The Communist Party of Kazakhstan is a constituent part of the CPSU. The spread of Marxism and the formation of the Social Democratic movement in Kazakhstan began at the turn of the 20th century; the Social Democratic circle in Ural’sk and the Social Democratic group in Petropavlovsk were the first to appear. During the Revolution of 1905–07 in Russia, Kazakhstan had three Social Democratic organizations (in Petropavlovsk, Ural’sk, and Semipalatinsk), seven groups (in Akmolinsk, Aktiubinsk, Vernyi, Kazalinsk, Kustanai, Perovsk, and Cherniaev), and seven circles (in Atbasar, Dzharkent, Dzhusaly, Karkaralinsk, Kokchetav, Pavlodar, and Ust’-Kamenogorsk). There were more than 500 Social Democrats. The largest organizations were those of Ural’sk and Petropavlovsk (approximately 150 members each); V. V. Kuibyshev performed party work in the latter in 1907. The defeat of the Revolution of 1905–07 resulted in the crushing of Social Democratic organizations and groups. Revolutionary work was carried on in Kazakhstan by individual Social Democrats who had been able to avoid arrest and by those who had been exiled from the interior of Russia and who formed groups from time to time.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks of Kazakhstan joined the organizations of the RSDLP that had merged with the Mensheviks. As a result, the liberation of toiling masses from the influence of the conciliators and the bourgeois nationalists was impeded. The Central Committee of the RSDLP(B), which had ties with 27 organizations of Kazakhstan, aided local Bolsheviks in creating independent Bolshevik groups; the leaders included A. T Dzhangil’din, P. A. Kobozev, A. V. Cherviakov, and V. F. Zinchenko. Returning front-line soldiers and Kazakhs mobilized for work on the home front played an important role in spreading Bolshevik influence. In June 1917 the Perovsk Social Democratic group became the first to adopt the platform of the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B). Beginning in September 1917 the Bolsheviks won leading positions in a number of Soviets.

The final break with the Mensheviks in Kazakhstan came after the October Revolution. During November and December 1917, independent Bolshevik organizations formed in Petropavlovsk, Akmolinsk, Aulie-Ata, Ural’sk, and Ust’-Kamenogorsk; in January 1918, in Semipalatinsk; in February, in Aktiubinsk; and in March, in Vernyi. Party cells began to emerge in the villages at the end of 1917; the first cell appeared on December 1 in the settlement of Aleksandrovskii, Ural’sk Oblast. In January 1918 cells also began to appear in the auls of Syr Darya Region.

A single party center in Kazakhstan was lacking. The Central Committee of the party sent A. T. Dzhangil’din, P. A. Kobozev, S. M. Tsvilling, and A. A. Zvezdov there. As Bolshevik organizations began to form, the party’s ranks were reinforced by representatives of the toiling Kazakhs and other eastern nationalities. The Bolsheviks led the struggle of the Kazakh people for the establishment of Soviet power; they carried out the nationalization of industrial enterprises, the confiscation of large landholdings, and the transfer of land to the poorest Kazakh and Russian peasantry.

The creation of the Communist Party of Turkestan in June 1918 was of great significance for party construction in southern Kazakhstan. The Turkestan party consisted of party organizations of Syr Darya and Semirech’e regions and parts of Turgai and Ural’sk regions. Communists directed the struggle against foreign and domestic counterrevolutionaries and led the partisan movement during the Civil War. Active party and Soviet workers who came to the fore during the establishment and consolidation of Soviet power included A. Aitiev, T. Bokin, P. Vinogradov, A. T. Dzhangil’din, A. Imanov, I. Kiselev, M. Letunov, A. Maikutov, M. Masanchi, S. Mendeshev, N. Monin, P. Paramonov, A. Rozybakiev, T. Ryskulov, P. Salov, S. Seifullin, K. Sutiushev, L. I. Taran, M. Tatimov, A. Urazbaeva, Ia. Ushanov, S. Tsarev, A. V. Cherviakov, S. Sharipov, and A. Iarmukhamedov. The strengthening of the Soviet system and party organizations of Kazakhstan was aided by the activity of Sh. Z. Eliav, M. V. Frunze, V. V. Kuibyshev, Ia. E. Rudzutak, F. I. Goloshchekin, and G. I. Bokii.

During the Civil War, the party organizations of Kazakhstan grew stronger, their authority increased, and membership grew (16, 000 in 1920). On Apr. 30, 1920, the Central Committee of the RCP(B), taking into account the pressing need to unite the party organizations of Kazakhstan, established the Kirghiz (Kazakh) Regional Bureau of the RCP(B), with A. Avdeev, A. Aitiev, A. Alibekov, S. Argancheev, A. T. Dzhangil’din, M. Murzagaliev, and S. S. Pestkovskii. The first Kirghiz (Kazakh) Regional Party Conference was held in Orenburg, June 11–18, 1921. It established the ways and measures to strengthen regional party organization at the regional level and to enlist the toiling Kazakh masses in the RCP(B), and it elected a regional committee for the party. The Central Committee of the RCP(B) aided the party organizations of Kazakhstan in overcoming the difficulties resulting from the special character of their development—the great number of peasants and young Communists and their low literacy rate. Communist directed the implementation of land and water reforms, the partition of haying and plowed lands, the confiscation of the property of the major semifeudal bais, and other socioeconomic transformations.

The Kirghiz (Kazakh) Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP(B) was created in April 1922. In June 1922 the Central Committee of the party sent the letter entitled “To the Communists of the Kirghiz Republic,” which provided an analysis of the condition of the regional party organization, revealed the shortcomings in the implementation of the Leninist national policy, and defined tasks.

The Lenin Enrollment was of great significance in strengthening the party organization. By October 1924 about 8, 000 people had been accepted into the party in Kazakhstan (with Syr Darya and Dzhetysu regions), of whom more than 6, 000 were industrial workers and a substantial number were farm laborers. According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP(B) of Feb. 19, 1925, the regional committee renamed the territorial committee. Communists headed the struggle of the toiling masses of Kazakhstan to rehabilitate the economy and strengthen the union of the working class and peasantry. The party organization did a great deal of work in implementing the cultural revolution. Communists exerted great efforts to give the emancipated Kazakh women access to socially useful labor and participation in the state administration. The activity of the party organization of Kazakhstan ensured the fulfillment of plans for the socialist industrialization of Kazakhstan and the formation and training of a national working class and intelligentsia. During the collectivization of agriculture and the elimination of the kulaks and bais, 20, 500 Communists worked in rural areas, aided by experienced party workers sent from the interior of the country by the Central Committee of the ACP(B). Patriarchal-clan and feudal vestiges were elminated in the fierce struggle against the Muslim clergy and the remains of the exploiting classes. Simultaneously with the collectivization, the Communists of Kazakhstan carried out a historic task—the mass shift of the nomadic and seminomadic population to a settled way of life. The Central Committee of the ACP(B) aided the party organizations of Kazakhstan in overcoming the difficulties encountered on the path to collectivization and the transition to a settled way of life and in correcting the errors and exaggerated measures that had been taken. The resolution of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On Agriculture and, Particularly, Livestock Raising in Kazakhstan (September 1932) played a large role. Educating the toiling people in the spirit of internationalism, the party organization of Kazakhstan struggled against national deviationists, Trotskyites, and right-wing opportunists, exposing and routing all antiparty and clan groupings in its ranks that were preventing the implementation of the Leninist national policy. By 1937 the number of Kazakh Communists had increased sixfold over 1921. On Apr. 23, 1937, in connection with the creation of the Kazakh SSR (1936), the Central Committee of the ACP(B) transformed the territorial party organization into the CP(B) of Kazakhstan. The first congress of Communists of the republic, in June 1937, completed the formation of the CP(B) of Kazakhstan.

During the years of socialist construction, a great deal of work was done in the party organization of Kazakhstan by M. Ataniiazov, I. A. Bogdanov, A. Dosov, U. Dzhandosov, T. Dzhumabaev, S. Zhanbaev, S. Eskaraev, A. I. Zavarit’ko, U. Isaev, I. Kabulov, F. Karibzhanov, I. S. Kliment’ev, D. A. Kunaev, I. Kuramysov, L. I. Mirzoian, N. Nurmakov, S. Nurpeisov, F. I. Olikov, I. Omarov, A. I. Samokhvalov, N. Syrgabekov, M. Tatimov, T. Tazhibaev, N. D. Undasynov, and Zh. Shaiakhmetov.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–5), the CP(B) of Kazakhstan undertook an enormous amount of work to turn Kazakhstan into an arsenal for the front. Two-thirds of the Communists of Kazakhstan (82, 000) went into the Soviet Army. During the war, 128, 559 people joined the ranks of the CP(B) of Kazakhstan.

In the postwar years the toiling masses, led by the CP of Kazakhstan, rebuilt the economy on a peacetime footing, guaranteeing its further development. Through the resolutions of the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU (1956), the Communists of Kazakhstan waged a struggle to eliminate errors that had been made; they restored the Leninist norms of party life and socialist law. The CP of Kazakhstan directed the development of virgin and unused lands, the exploitation of mineral wealth, and the construction of large-scale industrial enterprises, railroads, and highways. Guided by the resolution of the October Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the CPSU of 1964, the party organizations of the republic eliminated the effects of voluntarism and subjectivism.

Table 3a. Membership in the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
 Members of CPSUCandidate members of CPSUTotal members
1921 (June).............15, 52511, 15226, 677
1931 (January).............24, 83132, 08660, 517
1941 (January).............75, 48450, 109125, 593
1951 (January).............194, 71432, 954227, 668
1961 (January).............317, 70032, 415345, 115
1972 (January).............568, 74626, 357595, 103

Under conditions of developed socialist society, the influence of the CP of Kazakhstan has been increasing, the role of party organizations growing, and the workers’ nucleus becoming stronger. In 1959 workers constituted 45.8 percent of those accepted as candidate members to the party; in 1971, 64.8 percent. The composition of the CP of Kazakhstan reflects the friendship and brotherhood of the Soviet peoples: it includes representatives of about 100 nationalities and peoples. There are more than 109, 000 women in the CP of Kazakhstan, evidence of the active participation of women in labor, political, and public life.

The Thirteenth Congress of the CP of Kazakhstan (Feb. 24–26, 1971) reviewed the eighth five-year plan and outlined new measures to carry out the tasks of communist construction posed for the country by the Program of the CPSU, and it approved the draft Directives of the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU on the 1971–75 five-year plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR. The congress devoted a great deal of attention to questions of intraparty and ideological work. The CP of Kazakhstan is directing the efforts of the toiling masses toward realization of the resolutions of the twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU, the completion of the ninth five-year plan for 1971–75, and the construction of the material and technical base for communist society.

Table 3b. Conferences and congresses of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
Regional conferences 
1st..........................June 11–18, 1921
2nd..........................Feb19–27, 1922
3rd..........................Mar.17–22, 1923
4th..........................May 11–16, 1924
Territorial conferences 
5th..........................Dec. 1–7, 1925
6th..........................Nov. 15–23, 1927
7th..........................May 30-June 6, 1930
8th..........................Jan. 8–16, 1934
Congresses 
1st..........................June 5–12, 1937
2nd..........................July 3–4, 1938
3rd..........................Mar. 10–18, 1940
4th..........................Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 1949
5th..........................Dec. 15–18, 1950
6th..........................Sept. 20–24, 1951
7th..........................Feb. 16–18, 1954
8th..........................Jan. 24–27, 1956
9th..........................Jan. 14–15, 1959
10th..........................Mar. 10–12, 1960
11th..........................Sept. 27–29, 1961
12th..........................Mar. 10–12, 1966
13th..........................Feb. 24–26, 1971

REFERENCES

Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoi partii Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1963.
U istokov Kommunisticheskoi partii Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Kommunisticheskaia partiia Kazakhstana v dokumentakh i tsifrakh: Sb dokumentov i statisticheskikh materialov o roste i regulirovanii sostava partiinoi organizatsii. Alma-Ata, 1960.
Kunaev, D. “Leninskaia partiia i razvitie proizvoditel’nykh sil.” Kommunist, 1972, no. 6.
Beisembaev, S. Lenin i Kazakhstan.Alma-Ata. 1968.
Kozybaev, M. Kompartiia Kazakhstana v period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny (1941–1945 gg). Alma-Ata, 1964.
Tursunbaev, A. B. Pobeda kolkhoznogo stroia v Kazakhstane. Alma-Ata, 1957.
P. M. PAKHMURNYI

The Komsomol of Kazakhstan is a constituent part of the Ail-Union Komsomol. The first student and youth Social Democratic organizations in Kazakhstan were formed during the Revolution of 1905–07 but were crushed. In 1917 the creation of democratic and socialist youth organizations began, but they were dominated by representatives of bourgeois-feudal and petit-bourgeois nationalist circles; the left, revolutionary-democratic wing was weak. In the course of the establishment of Soviet power, these organizations disintegrated, and their best members joined the Russian Komsomol. The youth of multinational Kazakhstan participated in the Civil War, and many of them died heroically, including the 18-year-old Communist Nastia Prokopicheva, a member of the Petropavlovsk Soviet; 16-year-old Misha Gavrilov, a member of Chapaev’s force; 18-year-old Gusman Azerbaev, fighter of the First Kazakh Cavalry Regiment; and one of the organizers of the Komsomol in the city of Vernyi, Misha Stavrovskii.

The Russian Komsomol was organized in Kazakhstan in 1919–20. The Syr Darya and Semirech’e regional organizations of the Komsomol became part of the Komsomol of Turkestan, which was formed in January 1920. On June 9, 1920, the Central Committee of the Russian Komsomol created the Kirghiz (Kazakh) Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Komsomol. The First Congress of the Russian Komsomol of Kazakhstan (July 1921, Orenburg) completed the unification of the republic’s organization, elected a regional committee, and directed the efforts of Komsomol members toward freeing the toiling youth from the influence of the upper kulak and bai elements and enlisting young toilers in socialist construction; serious attention was devoted to work among the youth of the aul, especially among young Kazakh women. Gani Muratbaev, Mirasbek Tulepov, and others did a great deal of this work in the Soviet East.

The Lenin Enrollment (1924) played a significant role in strengthening the Komsomol of Kazakhstan. The number of workers in Komsomol organizations doubled, and the number of Kazakhs increased sixfold. In 1925 the regional committee was renamed the territorial committee. The Pioneer movement took shape and developed in Kazakhstan under the leadership of the Komsomol.

Komsomol members were reliable assistants to the CP of Kazakhstan in the struggle for the socialist industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture, the implementation of a cultural revolution, and the education of youth in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism, proletarian internationalism, and friendship among peoples. During the first five-year plans, tens of thousands of Komsomol members went as volunteers to the mines of Ridder and the pits of Karaganda or to work on the Turksib railroad or in the Chimkent lead works, the Balkhash copper smelting works, the Aktiubinsk chemical combine, and the Leninogorsk complex-ore combine. With members of the Communist Party, they initiated mass socialist emulation. More than half of them worked in Komsomol shock brigades. The members of Komsomol displayed selflessness and initiative in the liquidation of patriarchal-feudal relations and in the socialist transformation of the aul and kishlak, village, and stanitsa (large cossack village); they were pioneers of the important measures to consolidate the new culture and life, such as cultural campaigns to eliminate illiteracy and organize Red-yurts, theaters, clubs, and other centers of culture. As they graduated from higher educational institutions, technicums, and factory apprenticeships, the Komsomol members of Kazakhstan reinforced the national cadres of the working class and working intelligentsia. There were 65, 000 Komsomol members working for the elimination of illiteracy. The Komsomol organization matured and was tempered in the process of socialist construction. In 1937 it was made into the Lenin Communist Youth League of Kazakhstan.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the Lenin Komsomol of Kazakhstan sent 250, 000 members, or 70 percent of its membership, to the front. Ninety-four former members were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, including Aliia Moldagulova and Manshuk Mametova, the first Heroes of the Soviet Union to come from the women of the peoples of the East. More than 200, 000 boys and girls were awarded orders and medals of the USSR.

During the postwar years the Komsomol of Kazakhstan fought actively for the further development of the economy. The Komsomol played an important role in the development of the virgin and unused lands. Komsomol members of Kazakhstan are working successfully on the republic’s numerous construction projects and in its industrial enterprises. Since 1956 the Komsomol of Kazakhstan has sponsored 41 all-Union and 150 republic-wide shock construction projects. In the eighth five-year plan alone, it sent more than 15, 000 boys and girls to them.

The role of youth is growing in all spheres of life in Kazakhstan. Twenty percent of the resident population is in the 17–30 age group. More than one-third of the members of the Komsomol are workers representing more than 100 nationalities and peoples. The Komsomol members and youth of Kazakhstan participate actively in socialist emulation under the motto ‘The ninth five-year plan is the shock labor, skill, and quest of youth.” The number of young inventors and rationalizers doubled from 1967 to 1971. Since the beginning of the ninth five-year plan, almost 300, 000 boys and girls have participated in exhibitions of the technical creativity of youth; they have introduced 122, 000 rationalizing proposals yielding 178 million rubles to the general economy. More than 300, 000 boys and girls work in the fields of Kazakhstan, and 6, 000 Komsomol groups participate in the competition to achieve a high level of culture in farming and livestock raising and to increase the productivity of labor and the rational use of machinery. From 1967 to 1971 alone, more than 50, 000 boys and girls on Komsomol permits became involved in livestock raising.

Table 4a. Membership in the Komsomol of Kazakhstan
1921 (January)..........................20, 960
1930 (April)..........................111, 946
1941 (January)..........................347, 158
1951 (July)..........................394, 186
1961 (January)..........................800, 580
1972 (January)..........................1, 336, 946

The Komsomol members of Kazakhstan are performing a great deal of work in schools and higher educational institutions and devoting considerable attention to raising the general educational level of the working urban and kolkhoz youth. The Komsomol of Kazakhstan is a reliable reserve for and assistant of the CP of Kazakhstan in communist construction and the education of the rising generation. In 1971, Komsomol members constituted 56.5 percent of those accepted as candidate members to the party. For its active participation in socialist construction, the Komsomol of Kazakhstan was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1971.

Table 4b. Conferences and congresses of the Komsomol of Kazakhstan
Territorial congresses 
1st..........................July 7–13, 1921
2nd..........................July 23–30, 1922
Territorial conferences 
3rd..........................June 26-July 3, 1924
4th..........................Feb. 25-Mar. 2, 1926
5th..........................Apr. 8–14, 1928
6th..........................Nov. 12–21, 1930
7th..........................June 2–7, 1932
8th..........................Feb. 16–23, 1936
Congresses 
1st..........................Oct. 2–10, 1937
2nd..........................Feb. 12–21, 1939
3rd..........................Sept. 25–30, 1940
4th..........................June 3–5, 1948
5th..........................July 10–13, 1951
6th..........................Apr. 2–3, 1953
7th..........................Mar. 3–4, 1954
8th..........................Dec. 20–22, 1955
9th..........................Mar. 20–22, 1958
10th..........................Feb. 27–28, 1962
11th..........................Apr. 20–21, 1966
12th..........................Mar. 11–12, 1970

REFERENCES

Etapy boïshogo puti: K 40-letiiu VLKSM. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Boevaia molodost’: Vospominaniia pervykh komsomoVtsev Kazakhstana (1917–1925). Alma-Ata, 1958.
Piven’, N. Surovye gody: Iz istorii formirovaniia komsomoVskikh organizatsii Kazakhstana (1917–1921 gg.). Alma-Ata, 1958.
Dzhanibekov, U. Komsomol—vernyi pomoshchnik i rezerv partii. Alma-Ata, 1964.
P. M. PAKHMURNYI

The trade unions of Kazakhstan are an integral part of the trade unions of the USSR. Their emergence during the Revolution of 1905–07 was closely linked to the trade union movement of the Russian proletariat. Trade union organizations were established, first at the Uspenskii Copper Mine and then among railroad workers, in the cities of Ural’sk, Semipalatinsk, and Petropavlovsk. The defeat of the Revolution of 1905–07 resulted in the crushing of the organizations.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the creation of trade union organizations began in the cities and industrial centers under the leadership of the Communist Party. They participated in the struggle for the victory of Soviet power, in the nationalization of industry, and in the rehabilitation of the Kazakhstan economy. The mass enlistment of farm laborers in trade unions was characteristic of this period. In 1919 the Trade Union of Farm and Forestry Workers of Turgai Region was established. It subsequently became the largest trade union of Kazakhstan— the Trade Union of Workers and Employees in Agriculture and Lumber Procurement, which in 1971 had 1.4 million members.

The first territorial conference, which united the uncoordinated trade union committees of Kazakhstan, was held in Orenburg in October 1921. The first congress of trade unions was held in Kzyl-Orda in May 1925 with 82, 000 trade-union members who were represented by 150 delegates. During the prewar five-year plans, the trade unions fostered industrialization and collectivization, struggled to increase labor discipline and productivity and promoted a policy of austerity, and acted as organizers of socialist emulation; with their active aid the movement of shock workers and Stakhanovites was expanded and progressive methods generalized and disseminated. The trade unions did a great deal of cultural and educational work among the toiling masses. In 1932 they had more than 400, 000 members.

During the Great Patriotic War the trade unions played an important role in putting the republic’s economy on a war footing, in receiving and putting into service evacuated enterprises, and in making arrangements for Soviet citizens evacuated to Kazakhstan.

During the postwar years the trade unions expanded activity for the further development of the economy and the opening of virgin and unused lands. They took part in the organization of socialist emulation and improvement of the managment of production and waged a struggle for the fulfillment of production plans, an increase in labor productivity, and the improvement of working and living conditions for industrial and office workers, labor protection, and labor safety. The movement for a communist attitude toward labor involved the participation of 1.8 million people in the republic (1971); there were 30, 500 communist labor brigades, 9, 900 permanent production conferences, and about 8, 700 communist labor schools.

There were 19 oblast trade union councils in Kazakhstan in 1972 and more than 32,000 primary organizations, with more than 4.8 million members. The trade unions of the republic control more than 2,600 clubs and houses and palaces of culture, 14,300 recreation and reading rooms, 1,600 libraries, 31,200 amateur artistic groups, 1,900 people’s universities, 5,400 motion picture projection units, 13 tourist centers, 433 Pioneer camps, 363 stadiums and gymnasiums, and 27 swimming pools. In 1971 the state social security budget was 445.6 million rubles (in 1968, 352.3 million rubles).

P. A. KOVALEV

General characteristics. Until the October Revolution the economy of Kazakhstan was extremely backward, with a clearly expressed colonial character. A vast territory, very rich in natural resources, was an agricultural country with a very low level of industrial development; industry essentially consisted of small semidomestic enterprises for the initial processing of agricultural produce. The semifeudal lords and bais had unlimited power in the Kazakh aul.

Under Soviet power, Kazakhstan has become a developed industrial-agrarian republic. By 1971 its industrial output had increased by a factor of 158 in comparison with 1913. Important qualitative changes took place in the republic’s economy. In the structure of the gross national product, industry and construction accounted for 63 percent; agriculture, 25 percent. The rates of industrial development of Kazakhstan are higher than for the USSR as a whole. Over the period 1961–71, the growth rate for the industrial output of the entire USSR was 245 percent, and for the Kazakh SSR it was 276 percent. During the eighth five-year plan (1966–70) the total industrial production of the republic increased by 56 percent; production of group A products increased by 55 percent and that of group B products by 59 percent. From 1961 to 1971 the amount of capital investment doubled. For the eighth five-year plan alone, 24.1 billion rubles were invested in the economy—33 percent more than in the seventh five-year plan—and fixed capital stock of industrial production increased by a factor of 1.7. The Kazakh SSR was third among the Union republics, after the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR, in the amount of capital investments directed toward the further development of the economy; it was first per capita.

Kazakhstan plays an important role in the further development of the agricultural production of the country. With the development of 25.5 million hectares (ha) of virgin and unused lands from 1954 to 1960, it became one of the major grain regions of the USSR. Kazakhstan’s role in wheat production is particularly large. In 1971 the republic’s share of the gross harvest was 12 percent, and it provided more than 19 percent of the total volume of state purchases of cereal crops in the USSR.

Kazakhstan is the largest livestock-raising base in the eastern part of the country; in number of sheep and goats (22.4 percent of the total livestock population of the USSR) and production of wool (21.9 percent of all-Union production), it is second among the Union republics, after the RSFSR; it is third, after the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR, in head of cattle (7.3 percent of the cattle population of the USSR) and meat production (7 percent of ail-Union production).

Agricultural production is large-scale and highly—more than 99 percent—mechanized.

According to the 1971–75 five-year plan for the development of the USSR economy, Kazakhstan’s industrial production is to increase by 59 percent, with development of production of the means of production playing a leading role, because of the requirements of all-Union specialization, the existence of vast resources of raw materials in the republic, and the economic efficiency of their exploitation. Electric power, nonferrous and ferrous metallurgy, the fuel industry, machine building, and light industry and the food industry are to develop further. The plan calls for 29.5 billion rubles in capital investment to be directed toward the development of the economy of Kazakhstan and the development of more than 650 new products, a considerable portion of which will be consumer goods. In agriculture the goal has been set to bring the average annual gross harvest of cereals up to 24 million tons, guarantee stable production, carry out a complex of measures to protect soils against wind erosion, and improve the structure of sown areas. Cattle and sheep raising for meat will develop at an accelerated rate, and the feed base for livestock raising will be strengthened.

Industry. There were more than 23, 000 industrial enterprises and factories in Kazakhstan in 1972, more than 2, 000 of which are large-scale. During the eighth five-year plan alone, more than 450 large enterprises and works were put into service and hundreds of mills and factories reconstructed and technically re-equipped. Virtually all of the main branches of heavy industry have been established in the republic. In the Union-wide territorial division of labor, the Kazakh SSR is distinguished for nonferrous metallurgy (extraction and dressing of complex-metal, copper, and nickel ores, as well as bauxite; and smelting of metallic lead, zinc, copper, and other nonferrous and rare metals). The coal industry, certain branches of the chemical industry, and machine building (rolling equipment, instruments and apparatus, and forging and pressing machines) are also of all-Union significance. Great strides have been made in light industry, particularly wool and tanning, and in the food industry, especially meat, fish, salt, and butter. New branches of all-Union specialization—ferrous metallurgy (the extraction of iron ore and smelting of ferrous metals), petroleum extraction and refining, electric power, and the cotton industry—are developing (see Table 5).

In absolute volume of gross industrial output, Kazakhstan is third among the union republics after the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR. The branches of heavy industry are developing

Table 5. Rate of industrial growth by branch (percent of 1960 volume)
 19651971
Electric power.................195384
Fuel.................131227
Ferrous metallurgy.................255429
Nonferrous metallurgy.................149236
Chemical and petrochemical industry.................203503
Machine building and metalworking.................208357
Timber, wood products, and paper and pulp industry.................136223
Building materials.................174302
Light industry.................140263
Food industry.................159233
All industry.................164384

particularly rapidly; in 1971, it accounted for about 60 percent of the industrial production of Kazakhstan (in 1920, 12 percent).

From 1961 to 1971 the gross product of industry grew by a factor of 2.8; the production of electric power increased by a factor of 3.6; ferrous metallurgy, 4.3; the chemical and petrochemical industry, 5; and machine buildng and metalworking, 3.6. The output of the major industrial products is given in Table 6.

Under Soviet power new branches of industry—machine building, petroleum refining, production of inorganic fertilizers, knitwear, and sugar—have been established; the old branches have been fundamentally reconstructed and the scale of production increased.

This growth has been accompanied by improvements in the distribution of industrial branches. New industrial centers (Arkalyk and Rudnyi) and industrial regions and junctions (Pavlo-dar-Ekibastuz and Mangyshlak) have been constructed near mineral deposits.

The leading branch of industry, nonferrous metallurgy, is represented by the copper, lead-zinc, and titanium-magnesium industries and by the production of rare and precious metals. In all, the production of more than 30 chemical elements has been mastered. Kazakhstan is one of the leaders in the USSR in lead, zinc, and copper production. The enterprises of the copper industry are located in Karaganda Oblast (the Balkhash and Dzhezkazgan mining and metallurgy combines, which include mines and dressing mills) and eastern Kazakhstan, where the Irtysh Copper-smelting Plant is operating in the settlement of Glubokoe. A large copper-chemical combine was under construction there in 1972 around the Nikolaevka complex-metal ore deposits. Copper smelting is expanding at the Dzhezkazgan Mining and Metallurgy Combine.

The lead and zinc industry is highly developed in the Rudnyi Altai and in southern Kazakhstan. Large-scale lead and zinc combine in Ust’-Kamenogorsk, a complex-metals combine in Leninogorsk, and mines and dressing plants have been established. The construction of the Tishinsk, Berezovka, Nikolaevka, and Orlov mines has been important in strengthening the raw-materials base for nonferrous metallurgy in the Rudnyi Altai. Lead is smelted in southern Kazakhstan at the Karatau deposits of complex-metal ore (Chimkent). A titanium and magnesium industry has been created. Aluminum production has begun around bauxite deposits of Turgai Oblast (Pavlodar). Mining of lead and zinc ores is developing in Karaganda Oblast.

Ferrous metallurgy is one of the newest branches of industry in Kazakhstan. During the Great Patriotic War the Aktiubinsk Ferroalloy Plant and the Kazakh Metallurgical Plant in Temirtau were put into service. The Karaganda Metallurgical Plant, which has been producing finished products since 1960, was built in Temirtau after the war. Metallurgical plants in Temirtau and mining enterprises form the Karaganda Metallurgical Combine. A new ferroalloy plant has been built in the city of Ermak (Pavlodar Oblast). The iron ore industry has been developing rapidly in the Turgai Iron Ore Basin; the Sokolovskaia-Sarba Ore-dressing Combine is in operation there. The Lisakovsk Combine is under construction (the first line began operation in 1973), and the construction of the Kacharsk Ore-dressing Combine is planned. The iron ore industry of Kazakhstan will also

Table 6. Output of principle industrial products
 19131940195019601971
iron ore (tons).....5, 80, 00018, 800, 000
Pig iron (tons).....2.70, 0002.50, 000
Steel (tons).....130, 000300, 0003, 300, 000
Rolled ferrous metals (tons).........110, 000300, 0002, 700, 000
Coal (tons).....100, 0007, 000, 00017, 400, 00032, 400, 00067, 300, 000
Petroleum, including gas condensate (tons)..120, 000700, 0001, 100, 0001, 600, 00016, 000, 000
Natural gad (cu m)...3, 900, 0007, 400, 00039, 400, 0002, 747, 000, 000
Electric power (kW-hr).1, 300, 000631, 700, 0002, 617, 200, 00010, 469, 600, 000337, 789, 000, 000
Inorganic fertilizers, in conventional units(tons22, 300477, 0002, 822, 000
Sulfuric acid, in monohydrate (tons)....49, 20058, 200551,0001, 254, 000
Metal-cutting machine tools (unit).....59312, 436
Cement (tons)......15, 7002, 173, 0005, 991,000
Cotton textiles (linear meters)........700, 0004, 900, 00020, 400, 00065, 800, 000
Wool fabrics (liner meters).......140, 000400, 0002, 200, 0004, 100, 0005, 400, 000
Leather footwear (pairs)13, 0001, 200, 0003, 300, 00012, 300, 00028, 500, 000
Meat, inculding firstcategory by-products (tons).......97, 000109, 600278, 200568, 000
Butter (tons).....2, 30012, 10022, 30029, 10043, 700
Canned goods (standard cans)......30, 200, 00092, 600, 000159, 200, 000329, 000, 000
Granulated sugar (tons)70, 90071, 800122, 800149, 000
Fish and marine animals (tons)........31, 80087, 100102, 200105, 300100, 800

supply raw materials to the ferrous metallurgy industry of the Southern Urals and Western Siberia.

Kazakhstan is third in the country, after the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR, in coal production. In 1971 the Karaganda Coal Basin provided about 60 percent of all the coal mined in the republic. The importance of the Ekibastuz deposits, where coal is mined by the opencut method, is increasing sharply; it is one of the cheapest coals in the country. The ninth five-year plan provides that more than 50 percent of the total increase of the coal industry will be supplied by the Ekibastuz deposit of power-producing coal. Small coal deposits are worked in other areas, including the Lenger deposit in southern Kazakhstan. The Maikuben basin of brown low-ash coals, which are used to produce power and as industrial fuel, is 80 km from Ekibastuz.

The petroleum industry is concentrated in the western part of the republic. Deposits in Emba Raion are scattered over a broad expanse in a sparsely settled semidesert region. In additon to petroleum, by-product gas is extracted. Emba low-sulfur petroleum has good industrial properties; the lubricating oils made from it are particularly valuable.

During the eighth five-year plan, the Mangyshlak Peninsula became an important petroleum-extraction region. The Zhety-bai, Uzen’, Karamandybas, and Ten’ga deposits are being developed. In the ninth five-year plan more than 80 percent of the oil and 75 percent of the gas in the republic is to be extracted from the Mangyshlak deposits. Petroleum refining, which began when the Gur’ev Petroleum Refinery was put into service, is also developing. The construction of two more large refineries in Pavlodar and Chimkent and expansion of the Gur’ev refinery are planned.

The production of electric power was established in Kazakhstan during the Soviet period. Large state regional power plants have been built in Alma-Ata, Karaganda, Petropavlovsk, Dzhambul, Chimkent, Pavlodar, and other industrial centers. The Ust’-Kamenogorsk and Bukhtarma hydroelectric power plants on the Irtysh River and the Kapchagai Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Hi River are in operation. Three power units of the Ermak State Regional Electric Power Plant, which operates on cheap coal from the Ekibastuz deposit, were put into service during the eighth five-year plan, and a fourth unit was put into service in 1971. An important power center is forming in southern Kazakhstan, where the Dzhambul State Regional Electric Power Plant, with a capacity of 1.2 million kilowatts, is under construction (the first line of the plant was put into service during the eighth five-year plan; it operates on natural gas from Uzbekistan).

The machine-building industry of Kazakhstan began to develop rapidly during the Great Patriotic War, when a number of plants from the western regions of the country were evacuated to the republic. It produces forging and pressing equipment, metal-cutting machines, excavators, agricultural machines, various equipment for the coal and mining industry, and radio equipment. There is an association of plants producing mining equipment in Karaganda, a plant producing equipment for the petroleum industry in Gur’ev, heavy machine-building and electrical-engineering plants in Alma-Ata, the Kazakhsel’mash and Tselinogradse’mash plants in Tselinograd, and plants producing transformers and excavators in Kentau. During the eighth five-year plan, the first line of a tractor plant was put into service in Pavlodar. The output of machine building grew by a factor of 1.6 over the five-year plan. Instrument-making was established (Aktiubinsk, Kokchetav, and Ust’-Kamenogorsk). The machine-building industry of Kazakhstan produces more than 2, 000 types of machines, instruments, and equipment for the economy of the country and receives many kinds of machines and automatic lines from the other republics.

The chemical industry is developing around phosphorite deposits in southern Kazakhstan. A complex of enterprises producing inorganic fertilizers, elemental phosphorus, polyethylene, chromium compounds, and chemical fibers has been established. The largest are the Karatau Mining and Chemical Combine, the Chimkent Phosphoric Salts Plant, and the Dzhambul Double Superphosphate Plant. There is a polyethylene plant in Gur’ev, a synthetic-rubber plant in Temirtau, a chromium-compounds plant in Aktiubinsk, and a chemical-pharmaceutical plant in Chimkent. There are sulfuric-acid works at certain non-ferrous metallurgy plants. At the end of the ninth five-year plan, production of inorganic fertilizers had increased by a factor of 2.3 and production of chemical fibers by a factor of 1.8 in comparison with 1970.

The building-materials industry took shape under Soviet power in the central, eastern, and southern areas of Kazakhstan. It is represented by the production of lime, brick, gypsum, and cement. Artificial slate production has been organized through the cement industry. Many new types of building materials are produced, such as prefabricated reinforced concrete, slate, slag cotton, ceramet, and concrete and silica wall blocks. The production of linoleum, marble mosaic finishing tile, Ruberoid, and ceramic finishing tile is scheduled to begin during the ninth five-year plan.

Light industry is closely tied to the processing of agricultural raw materials. The main branches are tanning, footwear, sheepskin coats, wool, clothing, and knitwear. The cotton industry (Chimkent and Alma-Ata) and the furniture industry (Alma-Ata) are developing.

The food industry has a broad base for development. Meat is the main branch; the largest meat-packing plants, at Semipalatinsk, is second in capacity only to the Moscow and Leningrad plants. Butter is produced in northern and northeastern Kazakhstan. The flour-milling and groats industry is developed in large cities. Sugar refineries are located in the beet-planting regions of Dzhambul, Taldy-Kurgan, and Alma-Ata oblasts. The republic’s fishing industry is well developed. Sturgeon, giant sturgeon, and Clupeonella are caught in the Caspian Sea; bream and barbel are caught in the Aral Sea. There is also fishing on Lakes Balkhash and Zaisan.

Agriculture. ln 1971, 183.6 million ha of agricultural lands were used by enterprises and farms, including 34.5 million ha of plowed fields, 6.49 million ha of hayfields, and 141.5 million ha of pastures. The main form of agricultural enterprise is the sovkhoz, which became widespread after the massive development of virgin and unused lands. In the 1954–58 period alone, 553 new sovkhozes were established. The standards for technical equipment of farms rose sharply. Over the period of development of virgin lands (1954–60) the number of tractors and grain-harvesting combines in the sovkhozes and kolkhozes of the northern oblasts increased by a factor of almost 6, and the number of trucks increased by a factor of 6. This made possible complete mechanization of the cultivation of grain crops and the provision of an increased level of mechanization for the cultivation of other agricultural crops.

As of the end of 1971 there were 1, 631 sovkhozes and 451 kolkhozes in Kazakhstan. In 1971 sovkhozes accounted for almost 82 percent of the total sown area of Kazakhstan and 81 percent of the gross harvest of cereals. In 1971 the sovkhozes accounted for 86 percent of purchases of cereals, 72 percent of purchases of cattle and fowl, 78 percent of milk purchases, and 69 percent of wool purchases.

The necessary conditions for the further development of agriculture are the consistent intensification and comprehensive mechanization and, on this basis, the increase of the general culture of production, as well as the use of science and technology. During the period 1961–71 alone, the total power of agricultural machinery increased by a factor of almost 1.6, to 35, 714, 000 hp. All sovkhozes and kolkhozes are completely electrified, and 70 percent of them are connected to the state power grids. In 1971 there were 525, 000 tractors in agriculture (in 15-hp units), 97, 000 grain-harvesting combines, and more than 103, 000 trucks.

Specialization of various agricultural regions in the republic has been established. The economy of western Kazakhstan is devoted primarily to the production of cereals, meat and wool sheep raising and meat and dairy cattle raising, and the economy of southern Kazakhstan specializes in the production of karakul and in industrial crops (sugar beets and cotton), horticulture, viticulture, dairy and meat cattle raising, and rice production. In addition to the production of commercial cereals, the northern and eastern oblasts of the republic are developing meat and dairy livestock raising and swine and poultry breeding.

In 1971 farm produce accounted for 47.3 percent of gross agricultural production; livestock raising, 52.7 percent. In the all-Union division of labor, Kazakhstan is a major producer of commercial cereals, meat, and wool. The structure of sown area is shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Sown areas (hectares)
 19131940195019601971
Grain crops.....3, 880, 8005, 817, 1006, 055, 20021, 949, 90022, 406, 700
wheat.....2, 507, 1003, 446, 4004, 024, 00018, 062, 60016, 592, 000
rice.....25, 30028, 10029, 80013, 10090, 600
millet.....455, 200903, 100464, 700864, 700711, 300
Industrial crops......102, 800341, 300367, 500406, 700458, 200
cotton......15, 000101, 80096, 900105, 600118, 500
sugar beets......15, 40020, 30060, 00070, 400
sunflowers......18, 800164, 900157, 100134, 600102, 100
Potatoes......41, 50099, 700140, 600174, 200190, 400
Vegetables......12, 20022, 90028, 30046, 10053, 000
Fodder crops......88, 200494, 6001, 234, 9005, 923, 0008, 409, 900
Total sown areas......4, 145, 7006, 808, 6007, 854, 30028, 542, 70031, 558, 400

The sown area in the republic is constantly growing. In 1971 the crop area was 7.6 times greater than in 1913 and 4.6 times greater than in 1940. Growth was particularly great from 1954 to 1956 as a result of the development of new lands. In 1971, 71.0 percent of the crop area of the republic was under cereals (including 52.6 percent under wheat), 1.5 percent was under industrial crops, 0.9 percent was under potatoes and vegetables or melons, and 26.6 percent was under feed crops. In recent years the proportion of sown area under cereals has decreased somewhat and the area under industrial and feed crops has increased.

Table 8. Gross harvest of major agricultural crops (tons)
1Yearly average
 1961–6511966–7011971
Cereal crops...........14, 525, 00020, 668, 00021, 085, 000
wheat...........11, 159, 00016, 077, 00015, 802, 000
Raw cotton...........217, 000241,000296, 000
Sugar beets (industrial).1, 492, 0002, 276, 0002, 129, 000
Potatoes...........1, 181,0001, 741,0001, 710, 000
Vegetables...........559, 000693, 000792, 000

The average annual productivity of cereals grew from 6.1 quintals per ha in 1961–65 to 8.8 quintals in 1971. One of the most important reserves for raising expansion and better utilization of irrigated lands, and also a redoubled struggle against losses in harvesting and processing of agricultural crops. Agricultural crops are sown on 1.25 million ha of irrigated land, of which 37 percent is under cereals. Irrigated lands are located primarily in southern Kazakhstan. Large irrigation canals and systems have been built in Kzyl-Orda, Chimkent, Dzhambul, Taldy-Kurgan, and ALma-Ata Oblasts.

The main cereal region is made up of the northern virgin lands, which account for about two-thirds of all plantings of cereal crops. There are substantial plantings of cereals in the south as well as in the foothills and valleys of the Tien-Shan; grain crops are grown there on dry-farming and on irrigated lands. In 1972, Kazakhstan provided more than 17 million tons of grain, a total that was particularly significant given the difficult weather conditions in a considerable portion of the country.

Drought-resistant millet, which accounts for about 30 percent of the millet planted in the USSR, is a characteristic crop of Kazakhstan. Large areas are under millet in the northwest and northeast of the republic, which are drier and less favourable for wheat. Rice growing is developed in the valleys of the Syr Darya and Karatal. A new rice-growing region is being created in the lower reached of the Ili River.

Among industrial crops the most important are cotton, sugar beets, sunflowers, and tobbacco. Cotton is cultivated only in Chimkent Oblast. Beet growning is well developed on irrigated lands in Dzhambul, Alma-Ata, and Taldy-Kurgan oblasts; tobacco is grown in Alma-Ata Oblast. Other industrial crops are mustard (Ural’sk Oblast) and medicinal crops (Chimkent Oblast).

Under Soviet power plantings of potatoes, vegetables and melons, and feed crops have expanded substantially. Suburban farming is developing aroung Alma-Ata, Karaganda, and other large cities. The Irtysh-Karaganda canal, with its subsequent extension to Dzhezkazgan, will play a large role in the creation of a dairy and vegetable base around the cities of central Kazakhstan.

Orchards and vineyards, primarily in Alma-Ata and Chimkent oblasts occupy more than 130, 000 ha. Data on the gross harvest of agricultural crops are given in Table 8.

Over the period 1966–70, average annual state purchases rose by a factor of almost 1.6 in comparison with 1961–65 for cereal crops (including wheat, which rose by a larger factor); raw cotton purchases rose by 11 percent; sugar beets, by a factor of more than 1.5; potatoes, 2.2; and vegetables, 1.4.

Publicly owned livestock raising is developing through increases in the livestock population and its productivity. Many kinds of cattle and fowl are raised in Kazakhstan (see Table 9). The leading branch of livestock raising, which providing more than 50 percent of the total livestock income, is sheep. This has been facilitated by the existence of vast areas of seasonal semidesert and desert pastures where sheep are kept on green fodder for nine to ten months a year. Before the October Revolution only simple coarse-fleeced fat-tailed sheep were raised. Under Soviet power new varieties have been bred, and a large portion of the herd consists of fine-fleeced and crossbred sheep, raised primarily in the southeastern oblasts. A new variety of high-altitude sheep, the Kazakh Arkhar-Merino, has been bred for mountainous regions. The raising of karakul is well developed in southern Kazakhstan.

Table 9. Livestock and fowl population on all categories of farms, as of January 1 (head)
 1916194119611972
Cattle.....5, 040, 0003, 335, 0005, 543, 0007, 470, 000
cows....1, 868, 0001, 251,0002, 076, 0002, 730, 000
Hogs.....277, 000449, 0001, 773, 0002, 710, 000
Sheep and goats...17, 926, 0007, 914, 00028, 516, 00032, 596, 000
Horses....4, 311,000885, 0001, 158, 0001, 266, 000
Camels....103, 000140, 000127, 000
Fowl.....6, 700, 00019, 700, 00031, 800, 000

Cattle are raised in the agriculturally developed northern and northeastern areas, where dairy and meat cattle raising is dominant, and also in the agricultural belt of the south and east and in suburban farms around the industrial centers.

Horse breeding is developed in the mountains of eastern Kazakhstan and also in western and central Kazakhstan; camels are bred in desert and semidesert areas, primarily in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and the rivers of the Urals, and spotted deer and Siberian stag are raised in the foothills of the Altai. Swine are bred primarily in agricultural regions and in the suburban zones of large industrial centers.

The dynamics of state purchase of livestock products are shown in Table 10.

Table 10. Output and state purchases of main products of livestock raising on all categories of farms (tons)
 194019601971
Output Meat   
liveweight.....391, 700964, 8001, 572, 200
dressed weight....224, 100549, 400926, 800
Milk.......1, 089, 7002, 482, 3003, 900, 100
Eggs (million units)....307.3861.32, 013.1
Wool.....13, 40066, 20094, 100
State purchases Livestock and fowl(liveweight).....161, 800654, 0001, 244, 600
Milk and milk products....271, 100923, 6001, 784, 000
Eggs (million units)....38.5198.2877.1
Wool..........13, 80078, 9000104, 700

Transportation. The railroad is the basic form of transportation. The operational length of railroads increased from 2, 100 km in 1913 to 13,900 km in 1971, of which 90 percent was served by diesel traction and 10 percent by electric locomotive traction. The Petropavlovsk-Karaganda-Balkhash, Zharyk-Dzhezkazgan, Lokot’-Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Tselinograd-Kartaly, and Gur’-Orsk lines and the Turkestan-Siberia Trunk Line were built during the prewar five-year plans and the war years. Lines put into operation after the war include Mointy-Chu, Tselinograd-Pavlodar and a section of the South Siberian Trunk Line, Makat-Shevchenko-Novyi Uzen’, Esil’-Arkalyk, Gur’ev-Astrakhan, and Kokchetav-Karasuk. The chief freights transported on the railroads are coal, grain, ore, petroleum products, timber, lumber and building materials, and inorganic fertilizers. The freight turnover of railroad transportation was 229.6 billion ton-km in 1971.

There are 110, 000 km highways, of which 44, 200 km are hard-surfaced. The main roads are Alma-Ata–Frunze–Chimkent–Tashkent, Alma-Ata–Taldy-Kurgan–Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Gur’ev-Ural’sk, Karaganda-Tselinograd-Kustanai-Troitsk, Tselinograd-Kokcgetav-Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk-Pavlodar-Omsk, and the Eastern Ring (Ust’-Kamenogorsk-Kokpekty’Georgievka’Ust’-Kamenogorsk). The freight turnover of general-purpose motor-vehicle transportation reached 6.3 billion ton-km in 1971; the passenger turnover was 14 billion passenger km.

Navigation is well developed on the Caspian and Aral seas, Lake Balkhas, the Bukhtarma Reservoir, the Irtysh, the Syr Darya, and the Ural River (from Gur’ev to Ural’sk).

Pipeline shipping has gained in importance. Oil pipelines are in operation in western Kazakhstan between the Emba oilfields Shevchenko); there is a main oil pipeline from Uzen’ to Kuibyshev. Gas pipelines have been built in southern Kazakhstan to supply the chimkent, Dzhambul, and Alma-Ata industrial regions with Bukhara gas. Gas pipelines from Uzbekistan to the Urals (Gazli-Chelibinsk and Gazli-Sverdlovsk) and to the European part of the USSR (Middle Asia to the Central Zone) have been laid across Kazakhstan.

Air routes go from Alma-Ata to all oblast centers and to remote areas of the republic, as well as to Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Kiev, Novosibirsk, and Tashkent and the health resorts of the Crimea and Caucasus.

Kazakhstan has well-developed economic ties with all Union republics and regions of the country. The republic receives metals from the Urals; petroleum products from the Tataria and Bashkiria, Western Siberia, and the Northern Caucasus; timber and timber materials from Western and Eastern Siberia; and machines and equipment from the Central Zone of European Russia, the Baltic Region, Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and the Urals; as well as many consumer goods. In turn, Kazakhstan supplies other regions with nonferrous metals, iron, chromium, and nickel ores, inorganic fertilizers, grain, meat, wool, and hides.

Economic regions. Petrochemical and gas-chemical industrial complexes (Gur’ev Oblast) and chemical-metallurgical industrial complexes (Aktiubinsk Oblast) of Union-wide importance are concentrated in western Kazakhstan. This is the only region in Kazakhstan for petroleum extraction and refining and the gas industry; it is an important area for mining, the chemical industry, and ferrous metallurgy and the main region for fishing. Agricultural specializes are sheep raising (in the southern portion) and grain production (wheat and millet) in the northern portion of the region.

Northern Kazakhstan is the grain base of the republic and is an important livestock-raising region, specializing in dairy and meat cattle in the northern portion and sheep in the southern. The mining industry (iron ore, coal, nonferrous and rare metals, bauxite, and asbestos), ferrous metallurgy, the aluminum and chemical industries, and machine building are well developed.

Central Kazakhstan is the most important region for heavy industry, with the coal industry, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, chemistry, and machine building. Agriculture is represented by distant-pasture ranching and, in the northern portion, by grain production.

Southern Kazakhstan is the main region for irrigated farming, the production of rice and industrial crops, horticulture, melons, vegetables, karakul, and meat and dairy cattle. The chemical industry is developed in Dzhambul and Chimkent oblasts around the phosphorites of Karatau (the production of fertilizers); nonferrous metallurgy (mining of ore and smelting of lead), machine building, and the building-materials industry are well developed. The south is the republic’s main region for light industry (wool, cotton, leather footwear, and knitwear) and the food industry (sugar, macaroni, and confections).

Eastern Kazakhstan is an important region for nonferrous metallurgy and power engineering. Instrument making, the production of mining and metallurgical equipment, and forestry are well developed. The food industry is very important (meat, butter, and seed-oil extraction). The main branch of agriculture is meat and wool sheep raising.

Standard of living. Under Soviet power the standard of living has risen sharply. By 1971 the national income of the republic had increased by a factor of 2.2 in comparison with 1960 (by 71 percent compared with 1965). From 1966 to 1971 real per capita incomes increased by a factor of 1.4, and social consumption funds by 45 percent (250 rubles in 1970 as against 173 rubles in 1965). The average monthly monetary wages of industrial and office workers are increasing steadily (127.4 rubles in 1971, 98 rubles in 1965). Expenditures from the state budget for social and cultural measures rose from 92.3 million rubles in 1940 and 743.4 million rubles in 1960 to 2, 142, 800, 000 rubles in 1971. From 1960 to 1971 state and cooperative enterprises and organizations, kolkhozes, and the population built and put into service 70.1 million sq m of general (actual) floor space.

In 1971 the retail merchandise turnover in the state and cooperative trade, including public catering, amounted to 7.781 billion rubles (3, 468 billion rubles in 1960). From 1966 to 1971 alone, about 6, 000 new stores and 3, 000 cafeterias were opened. The number of savings banks increased from 1, 515 in 1940 to 4, 220 in 1971, and the deposits of the population grew from 14.4 million to 2.142 billion rubles.

REFERENCES

Nash Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Razvitie narodnogo khoziaistva Kazakhstana za 50 let sovetskoi vlasti Alma-Ata, 1967.
Sovetskomu Kazakhstana—50 let. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Adamchuk, V. A., and B. Ia. Dvoskin. Problemy razvitiia promyshlennykh uzlov SSSR (na primere Kazakhstana). Moscow, 1968.
Kazakhstan v tsifrakh. Kratkii statisticheskii sbornik Alma-Ata, 1971.
Kazakhstan za 50 let: Stat. sb. Alma-Ata, 1971.
Akhmedova, N. B. Problemy razvitiia i razmeshcheniia promyshlennostiKazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1971.
B. IA. DVOSKIN

Medicine and public health. There were virtually no public-health facilities and measures in prerevolutionary Kazakhstan. Difficult socioeconomic conditions and incessant epidemics led to near extinction of the population. Infant mortality was particularly high.

A large system of therapeutic and prophylactic institutions has been established under Soviet power. Plague, smallpox, and trachoma have been eliminated, and infant mortality has declined sharply. In the 1960–71 period the morbidity rate for diphtheria has decreased by a factor of 152; for tularemia, by a factor of 30; for whooping cough, by a factor of 35; for typhoid, by a factor of 4; and for brucellosis, by a factor of 5. There have been decreases in the incidence of tuberculosis (53 percent over 1961–71) and skin diseases. Helminthiases declined by a factor of 5 from 1958 to 1967. In 1971 the birthrate was 23.8 per thousand; the overall death rate, six per thousand.

With respect to medical geography, a distinction may be made among northern (steppe and forest-steppe), central (semidesert), southern (desert), northeast foothill, and southeast foothill-mountain areas of Kazakhstan. In the northern region, in areas with an abundance of fresh-water lakes, foci of nonicteric leptospirosis are encountered. In the northern, northeastern, and southeastern regions there are foci of acarid-bite encephalitis (such foci are also encountered in places in the semidesert). The incidence of opisthorchiasis is substantially higher in the northern region than elsewhere. Kala azar and tick-borne spirochetosis are endemic to the southern region. Teniarhynchoses, ascaridiasis, alveococcosis, and trichinosis are recorded in the southern and southeastern regions. Echinococcosis is recorded in areas of intensive sheep breeding. Goitrous enzootic disease is prevalent in the foothill-mountainous southeastern area. Hymenolepiasis and natural breeding grounds of Q fever are observed in all areas.

In 1971, Kazakhstan had about 2, 000 functioning hospitals, with 160, 900 beds (11.9 per thousand), as against 98 hospitals, with 1, 800 beds (0.3 per thousand), in 1913 and 627 hospitals, with 25, 400 beds (four per thousand), in 1940. Outpatient services are provided by 2, 200 institutions. In 1971, 30, 900 doctors, or one per 436 inhabitants, were working in Kazakhstan, as against 244 in 1913 (one per 23, 000 inhabitants) and 2, 700 in 1940 (one per 2, 300 inhabitants); there were also more than 111,000 secondary medical personnel. In 1971 there were 203 clinics, 559 children’s polyclinics and outpatient departments, 417 gynecological consultation offices, 56 maternity hospitals, 110 first-aid stations and units, 291 sanitary-epidemiologic stations, 1, 300 pharmacies, and 840 pharmaceutical stations.

There are ten medical research institutions in operation in Kazakhstan (oncology and radiology, regional pathology, clinical and experimental surgery, tuberculosis, labor hygiene and occupational diseases, epidemiology, microbiology and hygiene, eye diseases, skin and venereology, motherhood and childhood, and plague-prevention). Specialists are trained at five medical institutes and 26 medical schools. An institute of advanced training has been organized. About 2, 900 teaching personnel work in institutes, including 116 doctors and more than 1,000 candidates of medical science.

Health resorts in Kazakhstan are Borovoe (since 1971, Shchu-chinskii), an all-Union resort; Alma-Arasan; Arasan-Kapal; Ka-menskoe Plato; Muialdy; Chimgan; Ianykurgan; and Aul. There are 95 sanatoriums and 27 houses of rest in operation (1971). In 1971, 496 million rubles were allocated for public health and physical culture (24.8 million rubles in 1940).

Sports and tourism. In 1971 there were 2, 906 stadiums and gymnasiums, more than 23, 000 sports fields of various kinds, and 47 swimming pools. There were 2, 215, 000 athletes, including 714, 000 women, and 2, 800 masters of sport. There are 26 tourist routes, four of which are all-Union. The main tourist routes pass through the area of Lakes SabyndykoP and Zhasybai, where there is a tourist center (northern Kazakhstan); Lake ShaitankuP in the Karkaralinsk Mountains, where the famous Gorge of Caves is located (central Kazakhstan); Lakes Rakhmanovskoe and MarkakoP (eastern Kazakhstan); and, near Alma-Ata, the high-mountain Medeo skating rink and the GorePnik tourist center, from which a route proceeds along the banks of the Malaia Almatinka River to the Chimbulak natural landmark. A ski center is located there, at an elevation of 2, 202 m, where all-Union and international competitions in alpine sports are held. Fourteen tourist centers served 139, 200 tourists in 1971. There are 257 sports health camps and lodges for hunters and fishermen. Kazakhstan was visited by about 241,000 tourists in 1971 (including 8, 000 from 70 foreign countries).

Veterinary services. Under Soviet power, glanders, infectious anemia of horses, plague, epidemic pneumonia of cattle, smallpox of sheep, infectious pleuropneumonia and smallpox of goats, and certain other diseases have been eliminated. Many infectious diseases of farm animals that were previously recorded everywhere are now encountered as isolated cases. As a result of natural conditions, the presence of wild ungulates, insects, and ticks and mites, foci of piroplasmosis, biohelminthiases and nematode helminthiases, and diseases that have natural breeding grounds—for example, leptospirosis, listerellosis, and rabies— have become established; planned control and preventive measures are being undertaken.

As of Jan. 1, 1972, 4, 185 veterinarians and 9, 048 veterinary feldshers and technicians were working in agriculture in Kazakhstan. Veterinary services are directed by the Veterinary Administration of the Ministry of Agriculture of Kazakhstan; the network of veterinary institutions covers all regions. Veterinarians are trained by the Alma-Ata and Semipalatinsk zooveteri-nary institutes. The leading research center for veterinary medicine is the Kazakhstan Institute of Veterinary Science (Alma-Ata).

Until the middle of the 19th century, Kazakhstan had only Muslim schools—maktabs and madrasas—where children were taught written Arabic and the dogmas of Islam. These schools trained mainly religious ministers. After unification with Russia, which was completed in the 1860’s, the first secular Kazakh schools were opened. Ch. Valikhanov, I. Altynsarin, and Abai Kunanbaev, progressive exponents of the Kazakh intelligentsia, championed Russian culture and fought to spread secular education.

By the end of the 19th century, there were two instructional systems in Kazakhstan: the schools for the children of the Russian administration and the prosperous Kazakh and other non-Russian population and the religious schools. In the 1914—15 academic year there were 2, 006 schools, with 105, 000 pupils, only 7, 900 of whom were Kazakhs. During the prerevolutionary years, literacy was 2 percent among the Kazakh population; only a handful of women were literate.

A fundamental improvement in public education in Kazakhstan came with the establishment of Soviet power. Many new schools were opened and stations for the elimination of illiteracy were organized; short-term courses produced the first detachments of teachers and champions of culture. Teaching in the native language began. A great deal of work was conducted in transferring the Kazakh written language at first into a Latinized alphabet (1928); then, in 1940, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR adopted a law on transferring the language into a new alphabet based on Russian script. Universal elementary education was introduced in 1930; in 1931 seven-year programs were introduced in the cities, workers’ settlements, and large sovkhozes. According to data of the 1939 census, literacy among persons aged 9–49 had reached 83.6 percent (90.3 percent among men and 75.8 percent among women). In the 1940–41 academic year, 1, 158, 000 pupils were studying in general-education schools of all types. By the 1951–52 academic year, compulsory universal seven-year education had essentially been realized. Compulsory eight-year education was introduced in 1959. The number of daytime secondary schools is growing (2, 798 in 1971).

Before the October Revolution there were no preschool institutions in Kazakhstan. The first 20 kindergartens, with 610 children, were organized in 1920. With socialist reconstruction of the economy and the entry of women into socially useful activity, the system of preschool institutions continued to expand. As of Jan. 1, 1972, there were 5, 319 permanent preschool institutions in operation, educating 546, 000 children.

In the 1971–72 academic year there were 3, 296, 000 pupils in 10, 101 general-education schools of all types. A system of schools for working youth had developed. Special attention is devoted to including young girls of the local nationalities in universal compulsory education and to encouraging them to continue their educations; residence facilities have been opened at many schools. During the 1971–72 academic year, 173 boarding schools were operating (62, 900 pupils), and there were 2, 063 boarding schools at general-education schools (137, 200 children); more than 101,000 children were supported completely by the state.

The training of skilled workers began as early as the 1930’s. As of Jan. 1, 1972, 379 vocational and technical schools were operating, including 370 day schools, of which 181 were municipal vocational and technical schools (88, 000 students), 177 were agricultural schools (67, 900 students), and 12 were technical schools (8, 000 students). In 1971 the vocational and technical education system graduated 116, 900 skilled workers.

Secondary specialized education has undergone extensive development. In the 1971–72 academic year, 223, 400 students were studying in 198 secondary specialized schools. Before the revolution there were only seven schools (300 students) which trained teachers for the so-called Russian-Kirghiz schools. In the 1971–72 academic year, teachers for general-education schools were trained in 18 pedagogical institutes and 19 teachers colleges.

The first higher educational institution in Kazakhstan, the Abai Pedagogical Institute, was opened in 1928 in Alma-Ata. Today, specialized personnel with higher education are trained for all branches of the economy and culture at 44 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan are the S. M. Kirov Kazakh University, the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute, and the Kazakh Agricultural Institute in Alma-Ata. There were 200, 500 students in higher educational institutions during the 1971–72 academic year. A university was opened in Karaganda in 1972. As of the end of 1971, 818, 000 specialists with higher and secondary special education were employed in the economy of Kazakhstan.

As of Jan. 1, 1972, the republic had 7, 901 public libraries (69, 798, 000 books and journals), the largest of which was the A. S. Pushkin State Library of the Kazakh SSR; 30 museums, including the Central State Museum of Kazakhstan, the T. G. Shevchenko Republic Art Gallery, and the M. Auezov Museum in Alma-Ata; memorial museums dedicated to T. G. Shevchenko in Fort-Shevchenko, to V. V. Kuibyshev in Kokchetav, to Abai Kunanbaev in Semipalatinsk, to F1. M. Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk, and to V. I. Chapaev in the settlement of Chapa-evo; and museums of local lore in oblast centers; 7, 288 club institutions (see also below: Music, Theater, and Motion pictures); and extracurricular institutions—250 Palaces and Houses of Pioneers, 39 young engineers’ stations, 24 young naturalists’ stations, and 301 sports schools for children and young people.

REFERENCES

Tazhibaev, T. Prosveshchenie ishkoly Kazakhstana vo vtoroi polovine XIX v. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Berzhanov, K. B. Russko-kazakhskoe sodruzhestvo v razvitii prosvesh cheniia. [Alma-Ata, 1965.]
Sembaev, A. Istoriia razvitiia sovetskoi shkoly v Kazakhstane. Alma-Ata, 1962.
R. D. ESENZHOLOVA
Amateur arts. Amateur arts activity in Kazakhstan began during the Civil War (1918–20), when amateur theater circles were organized in schools, clubs, and units of the Red Army. In early 1972 there were about 44, 000 amateur arts groups, including more than 9, 000 choral groups, more than 6, 000 musical groups, more than 5, 000 dance groups, about 4, 000 drama groups, and 38 circus groups; there were about 2, 000 propaganda brigades. There are 226 people’s amateur groups. Participants in amateur-arts activities total 792, 500.

Natural and technical sciences. Kazakhstan was the homeland of the talented scientist al-Farabi, the founder of a progressive scientific school and the author of important works on astronomy, physics, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, and music theory. As early as the 17th century, Kazakhstan attracted the attention of Peter I, who sent a number of expeditions there to study the territory and the mineral resources of the region. The Weltanschauung of the first Kazakh enlighteners and scholars, Ch. Valikhanov, I. Altynsarin, and Abai Kunanbaev, formed in the second half of the 19th century under the influence of Russian culture.

The broadening of Kazakhstan’s economic, political, and cultural ties with Russia aroused interest in this vast region, which had very great natural resources. From the 18th through the early 20th century the expeditions led by P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, G. N. Potanin, P. I. Rychkov, P. S. Pallas, G. S. Karelin, I. V. Mushketov, and L. S. Berg worked in Kazakhstan. With the exception of a few weather stations and experimental fields, there were no scientific institutions in prerevolutionary Kazakhstan. The Russian Geographical Society had divisions in Semipalatinsk and Vernyi.

DEVELOPMENT AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION (UNTIL 1946). The victory of the October Revolution opened up extensive opportunities for the development of science and culture in Kazakhstan. The Society for the Study of Kazakhstan, the Physico-medical Society, and the Scientific Pedagogical Society were founded. M. O. Auezov, Zh. Shanin, and the brothers N. N. and A. N. Belosliudov, students of local lore, worked in the Semipalatinsk Division of the Russian Geographical Society (1924), publishing works on the soils, fodder resources, and climate of the Semirech’e, the economy of the Altai, and the pastures of northern Kazakhstan. The Regional Plant Protection Station (1921), a public-health and bacteriology institute (1925), the Institute of Veterinary Science (1925), and a research institute for fertilizers and agricultural soil science (1926) were established.

By 1930 there were five research institutes, 24 experimental stations, and 97 hydrometeorological stations. The Institute of Livestock Raising (1933), the Vil’iams Institute of Agriculture (1934), and medical research institutes were organized later. In 1932 the Kazakhstan Base of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was established. It undertook research in zoology, botany, and geology and trained national scientists. In 1938 the base was reorganized as the Kazakhstan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which was enlarged in 1939 with sections for soil science and geography and, in 1941, with the Institute of Geological Science. In 1940 there were about 100 scientific workers at the branch, including three doctors of sciences and 14 candidates of sciences.

A great deal of scientific research in Kazakhstan during the 1930’s was aimed at the development of the republic’s economy. A. A. Gapeev proved the great industrial value of the coals of the Karaganda Basin. M. P. Rusakov discovered the Kounrad-skii copper deposits. The first geological map of eastern Kazakhstan was compiled in 1939 under the direction of N. G. Kassin.

During the Great Patriotic War the scale of scientific research in Kazakhstan expanded. The intensification of work on problems pertaining to the defense and economy of Kazakhstan was aided by the most prominent Soviet scientists, among them V. L. Komarov, I. P. Bardin, A. A. Baikov, V. A. Obruchev, A. A. Skochinskii, D. N. Prianishnikov, and N. V. Tsitsin. Particular attention was devoted to the prospecting and mining of minerals, the development of the technology of dressing ores and smelting metals, the production of refractory materials and building materials, and problems of the chemical industry, irrigated agriculture and water supply, power engineering, soil science, botany, and livestock raising. A great deal of work on the natural conditions and resources of Kazakhstan was performed by the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of Academician A. A. Grigor’ev.

The number of research institutions of the Kazakhstan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR expanded substantially. Institutes of soil science and botany (1943), power engineering and zoology (both in 1944), physiology, regional pathology, and clinical and experimental surgery (all in 1944— 45), and chemical science and mining (both in 1945) were organized, and new sectors of mathematics and mechanics were established.

THE POSTWAR PERIOD. The Academy of Sciences of the kazakh SSR, the single directing center for science in the republic, was opened in 1946. Its first president was the founder of the kazakhstan school of geologists, K. I. Satpaev. During the immediate postwar years a leading role was played by research in geology, mining, and nonferrous metallurgy. Important work was done in the mid-1950’s on the development of the virgin and unused lands of kazakhstan, particularly the complex of geographic research work directed by Academician I. P. Gerasimov. During the 1950’s and 1960’s, research expanded in many new directions—nuclear physics, mathematics and mechanics, organic catalysis and electrochemistry, and high-energy physics.

Mathematics and mechanics. The main trends in mathematics and mechanics are differential and integral equations, functional analysis and the theory of functions, computer mathematics, and the mechanics of deformable solids. Research is conducted at the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR and in departments of mathematics in higher educational institutions. Results of the greatest importance have been achieved in problems of the theory of stability, the theory of systems of calculation for differential equations, the solution of heat transfer equations, the development of the theory of rock creep, and the mathematical simulation of the origin and formation over time of folded structures in the earth’s crust. Successes in mathematics and mechanics have been associated with the work of T. I. Amanov, O. A. Zhautykov, E. I. Kim, Zh. S. Erzhanov, K. P. Persidskii, A. D. Taimanov, and B. M. Urazbaev.

Physics and astronomy. The main trends in physics research are physics of the atomic nucleus and cosmic rays, applied nuclear physics, radiation physics, solid-state physics and physics of semiconductors, physics of metals, electronics, and automation. Research is conducted primarily at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Institute of High-energy Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, and departments of physics in institutions of higher education. The VVR-K hot-cell reactor, a radiation chemistry unit, a cryogenic section, and the U-150–2K cyclotron have been put into service. Surface mass spectrometers and beta spectrometers with dual focusing of the electron beam have been developed.

In high-energy physics the nature of the angular and momentum distribution of particles generated by cosmic rays with an energy of more than 5 X 1011 electron volts has been studied. In solid-state physics the electron spectrum of Group II transitional metals has been studied in connection with problems of heat resistance and electrical conductivity. In metal physics anomalies of the properties of metals are studied. Attempts to produce oxygen-free copper have been successful. Great contributions to the development of physics research have been made by L. A. Vulis, V. M. Kel’man, M. I. Korsunskii, G. D. Latyshev, L. M. Nemenov, Zh. S. Takibaev, and V. V. Cher-dyntsev.

The main research trends in astronomy are atmospheric optics, physics of the sun and bodies of the solar system, the physics of the interstellar medium, cosmogony, and cosmology. Work is conducted at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, which was founded by Academician V. G. Fesenkov. A great deal of work in astrobotany has been performed by G. A. Tikhov, a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.

Power engineering. Problems of power engineering are treated at the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Power Engineering (KazNIIE) and the Institute for the Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, in subdepartments of higher educational institutions, and in design institutes. KazNIIE has compiled general fuel, water-power, and wind-power cadastres for Kazakhstan. Work has been conducted on the optimization of the fuel-energy balance, the development of electric power and water-management systems, and the theory of regulation of river discharge during its integrated use. Preliminary planning studies of the route of the Irtysh-Karaganda canal and the Hi River have been conducted. Cyclone power engineering processes have been developed. The works of T. I. Baturov, R. Zh. Zhulaev, V. P. Zakharov, A. B. Rezniakov, Sh. Ch. Chokin, and V. V. Favor-skii in power engineering in Kazakhstan are well known.

Geography. The main trends in geography are physical geography (glaciology, climatology, hydrology, limnology, and the study of floodwater erosion phenomena) and economic geography. Research is concentrated in the Geography Sector of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorology (KazNIGMI), and the S. M. Kirov Kazakh University. A geomorphological map of the mountain regions of southeastern Kazakhstan with basic explanatory notes has been compiled, and basic data on the physical and economic geography of Kazakhstan have been summarized. The cycle and balance of the mass of glaciers have been studied, and the glaciers of high-altitude regions of Kazakhstan have been cataloged. Floodwater erosion on denuded hills and the danger of avalanches in the mountains of Kazakhstan are under study. A comprehensive picture of the climate, atmospheric circulation, and synoptic processes over Kazakhstan has been given. Comprehensive atlases of a number of regions have been published, among them Tselinnyi Krai (1964) and Karaganda Oblast (1969).

Great contributions to the development of geographical science in Kazakhstan have been made by G. A. Avsiuk, K. B. Akhmedova, N. N. Baranskii, I. P. Gerasimov, E. N. Glady-sheva, M. A. Glazovskaia, A. A. Grigor’ev, K. G. Makarevich, O. R. Nazarevskii, N. N. Pal’gov, M. I. Semenova, G. A. Tok-magambetov, A. S. Uteshev, and P. A. Cherkasov.

Geology and hydrogeology. The main research trends in geology and hydrogeology are regional geology, stratigraphy, magmatism, paleontology, geophysics, geomorphology, Quaternary geology, hydrogeology, and the geology of metallic and nonmetallic minerals, coal, oil, and gas. Research is concentrated in the K. I. Satpaev Institute of Geology, the Kazakh Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, the Institute of Geology and Geophysics (in the city of Gur’ev), the Kazakh Branch of the All-Union Institute of Geophysical Prospecting, and the territorial departments of the Ministry of Geology of the Kazakh SSR.

The main results of the regional study of Kazakhstan have been reflected in small- and medium-scale geological and mineral maps. Standardized stratigraphic charts based on paleontologi-cal research and determinations of the absolute age of rocks have been developed for all regions of the republic. Comprehensive geological-metallogenic research has been conducted in the Bol’shoi Dzhezkazgan, the Rudnyi Altai, the Mugodzhars, the Karatau, and the Turgai downwarp and at many deposits of ferrous, nonferrous, precious, and rare metals, oil, coal, and other mineral raw materials. A great deal of work has been done on the comprehensive study of phosphorites, potassium borates, bauxites, vermiculite, asbestos, and by-products of mining enterprises for use in various branches of the economy. Important research has been conducted on magmatism, mineralogy, geochemistry, lithology, and the theory of ore formation.

Seismic soundings have been made along the Balkhash-Temir-tau-Petropavlovsk profile, in the Dzhezkazgan-Sarysui basin, and in the Mugodzhars. Work on the perfection of geochemical and geophysical methods, the creation of new geophysical apparatus and technical means of mineral prospecting, and the introduction of research results in production is expanding. The services of geologists have been marked by the Lenin Prize on several occasions—for metallogenic and forecasting research on minerals and for the discovery of the Tishinsk deposits in the Rudnyi Altai (1963) and petroleum deposits on the Mangyshlak Peninsula (1966).

Research on hydrogeology is concentrated in the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, which works in cooperation with production organizations. Work has been done on the groundwaters of Kazakhstan and their hydrodynamics, chemical hydrology, regime, resources, patterns of formation, and practical use. A forecasting map of artesian basins, hydrogeological and chemical-hydrologi-cal maps of Kazakhstan, and maps of the groundwaters of pasture areas have been compiled. The total regional resources of rivers and thermal and mineral waters of Kazakhstan and the possibilities for their use have been determined. The distribution of heat and heat sources in the upper part of the earth’s crust have been studied.

The development of geology in Kazakhstan is associated with I. Ia. Avrov, Zh. A. Aitaliev, U. M. Akhmedsafin, V. F. Bez-rukov, A. A. Bogdanov, I. I. Bok, R. A. Borukaev, N. L. Bubli-chenko, Sh. E. Esenov, D. N. Kazanli, G. L. Kushev, G. Ts. Medoev, V. P. Nekhoroshev, M. P. Rusakov, K. I. Satpaev, N. S. Shatskii, G. N. Shcherba, and E. D. Shlygin.

Mining. The main trends in mining are efficient methods of opencut and underground exploitation of ore deposits, the scientific principles of mechanization and automation of underground workings, the laws of displacement of rocks and rock pressure, new methods of crushing rock, and the development of methods of improving mine atmosphere. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Mining of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, special higher educational institutions, VNIITsvetmet (the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, in Ust’-Kamenogorsk), the Karaganda Scientific Research Coal Institute, and Giprouglegormash (in Karaganda). Research is aimed at increasing the miners’ productivity, decreasing losses and impoverishment of ore, and improving the safety of mine workings. A system of forced block caving (Lenin Prize, 1961), new technology for underground mining of ore with self-propelled equipment, and new drills with independent bit rotation have been put into use; a number of studies on gob flushing, ventilation of mine workings, and optimization of production processes have been made. The work of O. A. Baikonurov, V. G. Bereza, A. V. Brichkin, V. V. Gurba, D. A. Kunaev, I. Z. Lysenko, N. V. Mel’nikov, A. Ch. Musin, A. S. Popov, and A. S. Saginov in mining is significant.

Chemistry. The main research trends in chemistry are the chemistry of inorganic fertilizers, macromolecular compounds, and natural physiologically active compounds; organic catalysis; methods of producing pure and ultrapure metals; petrochemistry; and the technology of processing natural salts. Research is concentrated at the institutes of chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, at universities, and in subdepart-ments of higher educational institutions. The technology of producing concentrated and composite inorganic fertilizers from the phosphorites of the Karatau has been developed. A method of polymerization of methyl metacrylate has been introduced. Electrochemical methods of studying powder catalysts are developing; in electrochemistry the fundamentals of the theory and technology of precipitating high-purity metals from solutions by means of amalgams have been established. A number of new heat-resistant, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction polymers and membranes have been synthesized and electrodialysis distilling units made on the basis of them. New monomers and physiologically active substances have been produced. In the various branches of chemistry, the research of I. N. Azerbaev, A. B. Bekturov, B. A. Beremzhanov, M. I. Goriaev, B. A. Zhubanov, M. T. Kozlovskii, S. R. Rafikov, D. V. Sokol’skii, and M. I. Usanovich is well known.

Metallurgy. The basic trends in metallurgy are the physico-chemical bases of the production of nonferrous and rare metals, the development of processes and technological plans of production of nonferrous and rare metals, intensification of the processes of extracting nonferrous and rare metals from raw ore, and the comprehensive processing and dressing of ores of nonferrous and rare metals.

Research is conducted at the Institute of Metallurgy and Beneficiation and the Chemical and Metallurgical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the V. I. Lenin Kazakh Polytechnic Institute, Kazmekhanobr, VNIITsvetmet, and the Kazakh Institute of Mineral Raw Materials. New technology for the joint extraction of elementary phosphorus and vanadium-containing intermediate material and a method of processing compounds of complex-metal raw material have been proposed. Ultrasonic methods are used to intensify the dressing of ores in extracting metal powders. Research in vacuum metallurgy is developing successfully. High-temperature refractory materials have been produced. An autoclave method of producing selenium and tellurium from electrolytic cooper sludges and the technology for smelting the complex AMS alloy, a reducing agent for steel, have been developed. New technology for processing high-silicon bauxites and a method of using natural gas and oxygen in the production of lead are being introduced. Methods are being developed for the comprehensive use of complex-metal ores, with the extraction of rare and trace elements.

Important contributions to the development of metallurgy in Kazakhstan have been made by Kh. K. Avetisian, E. A. Buke-tov, V. K. Gruzinov, A. M. Kunaev, V. V. Mikhailov, V. D. Ponomarev, M. A. Sokolov, V. V. Stender, and A. L. Tseft.

Soil science. The main topics of study in soil science research are soil formation in Kazakhstan, zonation, estimation of land resources and their use, classification of agrochemical and reclamation characteristics of the soils, erosion, and means of improving fertility. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Soil Science of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the Kazakh Agricultural Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Grain Farming, the V. R. Vil’iams Kazakh Institute of Agriculture, and experimental stations of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Kazakh SSR. The basic laws of the formation and spread of different soils have been determined and their composition studied; medium-scale soil maps have been compiled for all regions of the republic. Large tracts of land suitable for irrigation have been discovered on the lower course of the Syr Darya, Hi, Talas, and Chu rivers. Soil erosion maps have been compiled, and areas subject to wind erosion have been determined. A method has been proposed for reclaiming meadow-steppe solonetzes with gypsum layers close to the surface. The agrochemical characteristics of the soils most suitable for development have been determined. Great contributions to the progress of soil science in Kazakhstan have been made by A. I. Baraev, A. I. Bessonov, V. M. Borovskii, I. P. Gerasimov, P. G. Grabarov, S. P. Matusevich, A. A. Sokolov, and U. U. Us-panov.

Botany. The main trends of research in botany are the study and use of the plant resources of Kazakhstan, the biological principles of increasing the productivity of pastures and hay-fields, the physiological and biochemical principles of increasing the productivity of agricultural crops, and the genetic principles of controlling heredity and mutation to create productive plant forms. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, V. R. Vil’iams Kazakh Institute of Agriculture, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Grain Farming, the Institute of Plant Conservation, the Institute of Fruit Growing and Viticulture, and experimental stations of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Kazakh SSR.

The nine-volume Flora of Kazakhstan (1956–66) and the first seven volumes of Flora of the Sporophytes of Kazakhstan (1956— 71) have been published. The biology and ecology of many fodder plants and the dynamics of their productivity have been studied; the feed balance of the desert regions of Kazakhstan has been precisely determined. The efficient cycles of mineral nourishment of many plants have been determined. A number of new interspecies and intergenus hybrids of spring wheat have been produced, and a set of wheat mutants, has been created to use as stock material for breeding. High-yield strains of corn (AN-3 and AN-4) have been produced. The Central Botanical Garden in Alma-Ata and its divisions in Karaganda, Dzhezkazgan, Leninogorsk, and Bakanas are working steadily on the introduction and acclimatization of plants and on the planting of trees in new cities and industrial centers.

Great contributions to the study of the plant resources of the republic have been made by B. A. Bykov, D. A. Zykov, N. V. Pavlov, and S. R. Shvartsman. G. Z. Biiashev, A. M. Gabbasov, T. B. Darkanbaev, L. K. Klyshev, V. P. Kuz’min, and N. L. Udol’skaia have devoted a great deal of effort to research in physiology, biology, and genetics.

Zoology. The main trends in zoology are the biological principles of development of animal life in Kazakhstan, the determination of animal resources and the scientific principles of their preservation, reproduction, and use, and the exploration of the biological principles for combating human and animal diseases, both parasitic and with natural foci, and against plant parasites. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the university, the Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Science of Kazakhstan, the Middle Asian Antiplague Scientific Research Institute, the Institute of Plant Conservation, the Scientific Research Institute of Fishing in Kazakhstan, and higher educational institutions.

The geographical distribution, biology, and population of many useful species of animals and birds in Kazakhstan have been studied. Many species of game animals have been saved from extermination—for example, the saiga antelope, whose population attained commercial significance by 1972. Many economically valuable animals, such as the muskrat, have been acclimatized. A number of works concerned with certain parasites (protozoa, helminths, and arthropods) that produce human and animal diseases have been completed; the incidence of natural breeding grounds of a number of diseases of farm animals and various insect pests are being studied, and measures for controlling them are under development. Credit for the evolution of zoological science in Kazakhstan belongs to K. I. Skriabin, S. N. Boev, I. G. Galuzo, E. V. Gvozdev, I. A. Dolgushin, B. A. Dombrovskii, E. N. Pavlovskii, and A. A. Sludskii.

Experimental biology. The main trend in experimental biology is the study of the law of heredity and individual development of farm animals. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Experimental Biology of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the Kazakhstan Institute of Livestock Raising, the Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Science, the Institute of Karakul Raising, and the K. Mynbaev Betpak-Dala Specialized Sheep Raising Station. Highly productive varieties of cattle and Merino sheep have been bred. The republic has become one of the country’s main suppliers of karakul. A new highly productive variety of sheep, the Kazakh Arkhar-Merino, has been developed through distant interspecies hybridization. The study of heterosis in intergenus crossbreeding made possible an increase in the productivity of an experimental herd by 10–15 percent. Great contributions to the elaboration of the scientific principles of livestock raising and the breeding of new varieties of farm animals have been made by V. A. BaPmont, N. S. Buto-rin, A. E. Elemanov, M. A. Ermekov, P. A. Es’kov, A. I. Zhanderkin, and F. M. Mukhamedgaliev.

Physiology. The main areas of study in physiology are circulation, respiration, and lymph formation; digestion and lactation in farm animals; and the pharmacology of certain medicinal plants of Kazakhstan. Research is concentrated in the Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR and the subdepartments of physiology of higher educational institutions. A method of treating traumatic shock has been found. New data have been obtained on exteroceptive-interoceptive regulation of arterial and venous pressure, respiration, lymph flow, and blood deposition. The influence of certain trace elements on the activity of the digestive glands has been studied. The development of physiology in Kazakhstan has been associated with the work of N. U. Bazanova and A. P. Polosukhin.

Microbiology and virology. The main trends in microbiology and virology are the study and use of microorganisms and chemical compounds in ensilage of fodder and methods of enriching feeds with biologically valuable substances; the study of microorganisms that produce proteins, antibiotics, enzymes, and other biologically active substances for agricultural production and the food industry; the study of microbiological processes for the purpose of regulating the conversion of inorganic and organic compounds in the soil and water; and the deciphering of the molecular structure of group A viruses and development of measures for combating them. A biochemical method of accelerating the maturing of wines has been proposed and introduced. A method of bacterial leaching of copper from waste ores is being developed. The biosynthesis and breeding of producers of the antibiotic kormogrizin whose activity is stable are being optimized. These problems have been studied in the works of P. A. Bulanov, Kh. Zh. Zhumatov, A. N. Ilialetdinov, E. N. Mishustin, and D. L. Shamis.

Medicine. In medicine effective measures for combating malaria, brucellosis, encephalitis, tuberculosis, and trachoma have been developed. The incidence of endemic goiter has been reduced. A great deal of work is under way on occupational diseases in mining and nonferrous metallurgy. The climatic-balneological and mud-bath resorts of Kazakhstan have been studied. Thoracic and endocrine surgery, as well as neurosurgery, are developing successfully. In oncology definite strides have been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Work is being conducted in laser therapy. Great contributions to the development of medical science have been made by I. S. Bakal, S. B. Balmukhanov, N. D. Beklemishev, M. I. Briakin, O. S.Glozman, I. K. Karakulov, S. R. Karynbaev, I. S. Koriakin, P. P. Ochkur, R. A. Satpaeva, A. N. Syzganov, G. N. Udintsev, and K. I. Chuvakov.

O. I. ALEKSEEV

Social sciences. TO THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Religious ideology, a combination of Islam and shamanism, was dominant in patriarchal-feudal kazakhstan beginning in the ninth and tenth centuries. The philosophical and historical works of al-Farabi and Mahmud Kashgari, written in arabic in the ninth to thirteenth century, make valuable observations drawn from the life of the peoples of kazakhstan. The mongol-tatar invasion, which extended to Kazakhstan, halted the development of its culture. In the subsequent era, the epic works of the akyns (folk poets and singers) became the main source of information on the history of the kazakhstan peoples. The exploits of the batyrs who defended kazakhstan against the incursions of the conquerors were exalted in the narrative poems koblandy, er-targyn, and kambar-batyr.

During the 18th and early 19th century, great contributions to the history, geography, ethnology, and natural features of Kazakhstan were made by the Russian scholars P. S. Pallas, I. P. Fal’k, I. Georgi, I. K. Kirillov, P. I. Rychkov, A. I. Lev-shin, and N. Ia. Bichurin.

The unification of Kazakhstan with Russia, which was completed in the 1860’s, was a crucial point in the development of social thought. The career of the first Kazakh scholar and proponent of enlightenment, Ch. Valikhanov, a writer and traveler who wrote a number of works on the history and ethnography of the Kazakhs, Kirghiz, and Uighurs, dates to that time. The Kazakh proponents of enlightenment I. Altynsarin and Abai Kunanbaev also studied the history and ethnography of Kazakhstan. They spoke out against the lack of rights and the oppression of the masses and for the elimination of Kazakhstan’s backwardness, called for the development of friendship among peoples, and criticized the colonialist policies of tsarism. In substantiating their views, they relied not on religious dogma but on human reason and scientific data; they regarded knowledge as a reflection of the objective world. Problems of the socioeconomic development of Kazakh society—the conditions of nomadic livestock raising, the value of a settled way of life and farming for nomadic peoples, and the role of industry, trade, money, and education —attracted the interest of democratic Kazakh proponents of enlightenment.

In the second half of the 19th century, L. Meier, M. Krasov-skii, and M. I. Veniukov studied the history of Kazakhstan, and V. V. Radlov, G. N. Potanin, A. E. Alektorov, A. N. Krasnov, and A. M. Nikol’skii dealt with its ethnology. Problems of the history and ethnology of Kazakhstan were also studied by O. Seidalin, B. Daulbaev, M. Tiaukin, and M. Babadzhanov. However, primarily historical material was collected in Kazakhstan during the prerevolutionary period. In the late 19th century, museums of history and natural science opened in Vernyi (now Alma-Ata), Semipalatinsk, and Orenburg. A. E. Alektorov and A. N. SedePnikov published the first bibliographies of Kazakhstan. At the turn of the 20th century, Academician V. V. Bar-toPd made an important contribution to the study of the history of Kazakhstan. Archaeological investigations were begun on the territory of Kazakhstan by P. I. Lerkh and M. N. Iadrinskii.

The Revolution of 1905–07 in Russia produced an upsurge in the liberation movement. The exacerbation of social contradictions resulted in the formation of various ideological currents in Kazakh philosophical and social thought. Exponents of the religious and mystical current preached Islam (Shakarim and M.-Zh. Kopeev), although some of them (Kopeev and Aubakir) pointed out the usefulness of secular education. The interests and aspirations of the toiling masses were expressed in the work of representatives of the Kazakh democratic intelligentsia (the poet S. Toraigyrov, the satirist S. Donentaev, and the writer and pedagogue S. Kubeev). Carrying on the traditions of the enlight-eners, they spoke out in opposition to the lack of rights of the masses and the tyranny of the authorities and sharply condemned the activity of the Muslim clergy.

Marxist literature spread in the early 20th century. The Bolshevik newspapers Iskra, Zvezda, and Pravda penetrated the region. In the city of Vernyi and elsewhere, illegal libraries were established that contained the classic works of Marxism-Leninism (Marx’ ‘ Wage Labor and Capital, Engels’ The Development of Socialism From Utopia to Science, and a number of works by V. I. Lenin). Local groups and organizations of the RSDLP published and distributed revolutionary leaflets.

THE SOCIAL SCIENCES IN SOVIET KAZAKHSTAN. The establishment of Soviet power initiated the national renaissance of the kazakh people and the blossoming of its culture.

Philosophy. The prerequisites for the establishment of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and the advancement of professional philosophers were created in Kazakhstan after the October Revolution as a result of fundamental socioeconomic transformations. During the 1920’s and 1930’s, an ideological struggle over the question of the construction of socialism took place in Kazakhstan; the concept of the alleged innate incapacity of the Kazakhs for cultural creativity and the theory of the “common stream” were subjected to criticism, and evaluations of the social structure of prerevolutionary Kazakh society and the attitude toward the legacy of the past were reconsidered. During this period, the struggle against local nationalism and great power chauvinism was also a focus of attention. The interpretation of the patterns of the liberation movement of the Kazakh people refuted the views of the “external” relationship of the October Revolution to the history of Kazakhstan (S. Asfendiiarov and I. Iu. Kabulov). Z. A. Poriadin, A. Lekerov, and M. Tulepov wrote theoretical articles and treated questions of the development of socialism in Kazakhstan and problems of national culture from Marxist perspectives. The Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute of Marxism-Leninism was founded in 1931 (in 1940 it was made into the Institute of Party History under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan), with a philosophy sector. The translation into Kazakh of selected works of V. I. Lenin (six volumes, 1938–41) and the establishment of the department of philosophy of Kazakh State University (1949) and the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (1958) were of great importance.

A major trend in the work of the philosophers of Kazakhstan is the study of the complex of questions associated with the transition to socialism, bypassing capitalism; the transformation of relationships of production; the cultural revolution; the formation of a new consciousness; and the development of language (B. A. Amantaev, N. Dzhandil’din, D. K. Kshibekov, N. Sar-senbaev, and T. S. Sarsenbaev). The laws of development of the bourgeois state under imperialism and the paths of its revolutionary transformation are being studied (L. M. Slavin). In dialectical materialism and the philosophical questions of natural science, work is being done on the problems of the theory of dialectics of the Leninist stage in the perspective of historical and logical unity (A. Kh. Kasymzhanov) and methodological problems of the individual sciences (Zh. Abdil’din, M. N. Chechin, N. A. Musabaeva, and K. Kh. Rakhmatullin). The history of social and philosophical thought in Kazakhstan is being studied (K. Beisembiev); research is being conducted on the cultural heritage of Kazakhstan, particularly al-Farabi’s works; problems of overcoming vestiges of religion in national relations are analyzed in the works of M. S. Fazylov; and Muslim ideology is criticized in the works of Kh. Aknazarov and others.

A. KH. KASYMZHANOV

History. A crucial role in the formation and development of Kazakh historiography was played by the works of V. I. Lenin, his theoretical legacy, and party documents. Since there were no Marxist-educated history specialists during the first years of Soviet power in Kazakhstan, the history of Kazakhstan was initially studied by the party and state figures of the republic. The Society for the Study of Kazakhstan (the first chairman was the historian A. P. Chuloshnikov) and the Istparts (commissions on party history) of the Kazakhstan Regional Committee and province committees of the party did a great deal for the study of the history and ethnography. Glavarkhiv (the Main Archive), which initiated the gathering, processing, and use of documentary historical material, was established in 1921.

Questions of the history of Kazakhstan were studied by scholars in Moscow, Leningrad, Tashkent, Omsk, and Orenburg (V. V. BartoPd, A. Iu. Iakubovskii, A. K. Samoilovich, and M. E. Masson). Archaeological and ethnological expeditions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and of the Geographic Society were active during the 1920’s, and specimens of the people’s art were collected (A. A. Divaev, A. V. Zataevich, Zh. Shanin, and S. I. Rudenko). Works of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, as well as party documents, were translated into Kazakh. Erroneous concepts and views—that the social structure of the Kazakhs was classless and purely clan-based, that the triumph of the socialist revolution there was accidental and exceptional, that the extensive nomadic livestock-raising economy existed from time immemorial, and that geography had a determining influence on the history of the Kazakhs—were overcome. The first efforts were made to create generalizing works on the history of Kazakhstan, the history of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and the history of the national liberation movement. The training of historians expanded. Important services to science were rendered by the first Kazakh professor of history, S. D. Asfendiiarov, and by T. Ryskulov, G. Togzhanov, U. Dzhandosov, I. Kabulov, A. F. Riazanov, E. I. Fedorov, and N. T. Timofeev. Memoir literature was written by S. Seifullin.

The Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of National Culture was set up in 1934. In 1936 its sector of history and archaeology became a cell of the sector of history of the Kazakhstan Base and, in 1938, of the Kazakhstan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The department of history of S. M. Kirov Kazakh University was opened in 1945, and departments of history in higher educational institutions of pedagogy followed. At the same time, the Institute of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology was established under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. The first generalizing work, History of the Kazakh SSR (From Earliest Times to the Present), was prepared and published in 1943 during the Patriotic War with the participation of A. M. Pankratova, N. M. Druzhinin, M. P. Viatkin, and S. V. Bakhrushin. Although the book had erroneous propositions concerning various problems of prerevolutionary Kazakhstan, it remained a landmark in Kazakh historiography.

During the postwar years, the problems studied by historians and their source materials expanded. Archaeological and ethnographic study of Kazakhstan proceeded according to a scheme of reconnaissance. The History of the Kazakh SSR was published in two volumes (2nd ed., 1949). Interest in the history of Soviet Kazakhstan grew noticeably. The socioeconomic preconditions of the October Revolution were studied; scientific substantiation was produced for the proposition that the victory of the revolution in Kazakhstan conformed with natural laws and was an integral part of the revolutionary process throughout the country and that the Kazakhs, like the toiling masses of other nationalities, participated in the struggle for Soviet power. Research was done by S. N. Pokrovskii on the history of military operations on the Kazakh fronts—(Aktiubinsk, Semirech’e, and Ural)—during the Civil War. Works were written on the formation and development of the Kazakh Soviet state system, the formation of centers of socialist industry (Turksib), and the preparation for and implementation of collectivization of agriculture in various regions of Kazakhstan. Work was done on problems of the periodization of Kazakh history. Important contributions have been made to the study of the national liberation movement, such as the movement of the Kazakhs of the Little Horde in 1783–97 under the leadership of Srym Datov (the works of M. P. Viatkin) and the uprising of 1836–37 in the Bukei Khanate headed by Isatai Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov (the works of V. F. Shakhmatov). Ethnographers such as N. Sabitov continued to accumulate and study data on the material culture, life, and applied arts of the Kazakhs.

Beginning in the late 1940’s, archaeological expeditions covered nearly all of Kazakhstan; there were excavations of the remains of the Usun and Kangly and the Western Turkic Kaganate in southern Kazakhstan and of the cultures of the Bronze Age and early nomads in eastern and central Kazakhstan (A. Kh. Margulan, A. N. Bernshtam, and S. S. Chernikov). The Khorezm archaeological-ethnological expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (S. P. Tolstov) revealed the complexes of the gorodishcha (sites of fortified towns) of Dzhety-Asar and Altyn-Asar. The cardinal question of the correlation and interrelation of nomadic and settled cultures was dealt with in new archaeological material.

As of the mid-1950’s, the range of research in Kazakh historiography embraced all periods of history, from the Paleolithic to the present, with the problems of the history of Soviet Kazakhstan occupying the leading place. The third edition of the History of the Kazakh SSR (2 vols.) was published from 1957 to 1959. It introduced a great deal of new material on the fundamental problems of the history of Kazakhstan (the second volume, devoted to the era of socialism, was reprinted in 1963 and 1967). Studies in the History of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (1963) was a significant contribution to Kazakh historiography. The translation into Kazakh and publication of the works of Lenin (4th ed.) was completed; many documents testifying to Lenin’s concern for the Kazakh people were brought to light, and the collection V. I. Lenin on Middle Asia and Kazakhstan (1960) and S. Beisembaev’s monograph Lenin and Kazakhstan (1968) were published.

The problems of socialist and communist construction in Kazakhstan and the history of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan were reflected in the works of A. N. Nusupbekov, S. N. Pokrovskii, P. M. Pakhmurnyi, A. B. Tursunbaev, M. Kozybaev, A. Akhmetov, Zh. Zhumabekov, A. Erzhanov, T. Eleuov, and A. S. Elagin. A monograph on the history of the Communist organizations of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan was written in cooperation with the scholarly institutions of other republics. The publication of documentary materials on the history of Kazakhstan expanded sharply. Collections of documents on subjects from the early 16th century to the Great Patriotic War were published.

The problem of the transition of the Kazakh people to socialism, bypassing capitalism, and the forms and methods of socialist construction in Kazakhstan have been studied by S. Baishev, D. Kshibekov, and M. Suzhikov. The formation and development of the Soviet working class in Kazakhstan—in particular, its national cadres—during the prewar period has been analyzed by A. Nusupbekov. The history of Soviet construction in the aul during the transition to socialism, the history of the construction of the national state, and the resolution of the national question in Kazakhstan have been investigated by S. Zimanov, A.Erenov, S. Kenzhebaev, and N. Kiikbaev. A. Kanapin, R. Suleimenov, and K. Berzhanov showed the achievements inthe construction and development of the Kazakh people’s cul-ture. The study of the history of Kazakhstan during the GreatPatriotic War is expanding (A. Nusupbekov, G. Abishev, M. Kozybaev, and T. Balakaev), and work is being done on theproblems of the development of agriculture and of sovkhoz-kolkhoz construction during the postwar years.

The discovery and translation (with commentaries) of Eastern sources on the history of ancient and medieval Kazakhstan have expanded considerably. The study of the problem of the ethno-genesis of the Kazakh nationality is continuing. Questions concerning the unification of the Kazakh lands with Russia and the changes in the socioeconomic system of Kazakh society during the 18th and 19th centuries have been studied in monographs (E. B. Bekmakhanov, N. G. Apollova, and S. E. Tolybekov). The paths of dissemination of Russian capitalism “in breadth” and of decay of patriarchal-feudal relations in the aul, the history of migration, the development of the workers’ and agrarian movements in the second half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries, and the history of the national liberation uprising of 1916 and the bourgeois democratic February Revolution have been elucidated (B. Suleimenov and P. G. Galuzo).

Selected works of the Kazakh enlightener I. Altynsarin and the five-volume collected works of the first Kazakh scholar, Ch. Valikhanov, have been published. A. Kh. Margulan, B. Suleimenov, T. Tazhibaev, and K. Beisembiev have pub-lished studies of the life and career of Kazakh enlighteners and of the history of ideological currents in social thought and education in Kazakhstan. Texts of al-Farabi have been published with commentaries (A. Kasymzhanov). A complete ethnological study has been made of Kazakhstan, and the study of the culture and life of the contemporary Kazakh aul has developed (V. Vo-strov and Kh. Argynbaev).

An archaeological map of Kazakhstan has been compiled.Archaeological finds have been made in southern and easternKazakhstan and in the northern Lake Balkhash area. Kazakh-stan’s place in the formation and spread of Bronze Age culture over the entire USSR has been determined. Excavations of settle-ments, gorodishcha, and “royal” burial mounds of the period of the early nomads and the Sacae and Usun have been completed. The Ancient Culture of Central Kazakhstan (1966) and books onthe cities of Kazakhstan, including medieval Taraz, have been published. The Issyk Treasure, which contains about 4, 000 items of the high professional art of the Sacae, is a unique find. Large permanent excavations in Otrar and the Otrar Oasis have been undertaken (A. Kh. Margulan, K. Akishev, and M. Kadyr-baev).

G. F. DAKHSHLEIGER

Economics. Publication of the first specialized journal of political economy, which dealt with and discussed the most pressing problems of the economy, began in the mid-1920’s. In the 1930’s, subdepartments of political economy and branch economics were organized at higher educational institutions. The department of economics of the Kazakh University became one of the scientific centers of the republic, and from it was formed the Alma-Ata Institute of the National Economy in 1963. The Institute of the Socialist Reconstruction of Agriculture was founded in 1931 and reorganized in the 1960’s as the Institute of Economics and Agricultural Organization of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Kazakh SSR. The Economics Sector of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR became the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in 1952. In 1962 a research institute of economics was established under Gosplan (the State Planning Commission) of the republic. Research institutions and subdepartments of economics in higher educational institutions have participated in the compilation of economic plans for Kazakhstan and have dealt with topical regional problems of economic development.

The economists of Kazakhstan are conducting theoretical research in political economy, the history of economic thought, the economic zonation and distribution of productive forces, the economics, organization, and planning of the national economy of the republic, labor economics, the effectiveness of capital investments and new technology, profit-and-loss accounting and material incentives, finances and monetary circulation, credit, bookkeeping, and the analysis of economic activity (S. B. Baishev, T. A. Ashimbaev, R. M. Petukhov, T. Shaukenbaev, S. E. Tolybekov, T. T. Tulebaev, and M. K. Iliusizov).

Work on problems of the national economy is coordinated by the Scientific Problem Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Economics and Distribution of Socialist Production in Kazakhstan (created in 1962), which consists of leading economics scholars and practical specialists. A branch of the Scientific Problem Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Effectiveness of Fixed Capital Stock, Capital Investments, and New Technology was organized in 1969; a branch of the Scientific Council on the Comprehensive Study of the Scientific Foundations of Profit-and-Loss Accounting was formed in 1972. Articles on economic science are published in the journal National Economy of Kazakhstan (since 1926; organ of Gosplan of the Kazakh SSR) and in the Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.

Jurisprudence. The origin of jurisprudence in Kazakhstan coincides with the opening in 1937 of the first higher educational institution of jurisprudence in the republic, the Institute of Soviet Construction in Alma-Ata. The intensive development of jurisprudence began in the 1950’s. Considerable attention is devoted to the theory and history of the national Soviet state system, socialist law, and national-state construction in Kazakhstan and the Union republics of Middle Asia. The History of the State and Law of Soviet Kazakhstan (3 vols., 1961–65) and the monographs V. I. Lenin and the Soviet National State System in Kazakhstan (S. Z. Zimanov, 1970) and Contradictions in theDevelopment of the Legal Superstructure Under Socialism (M. T. Baimakhanov, 1972) have been published.

Kazakhstan is a center for the study of agrarian law. Monographs on this problem include The Origin and Development of Socialist Legal Land Relations in the Kazakh SSR (A. Erenov, 1963), Theoretical Problems of the Legal Regulation of Labor Remuneration in Kolkhozes (K. A. Shaibekov, 1968), and The Problem of Responsibility in Kolkhoz Law (M. S. Sakhipov, 1972). Research in law is conducted at the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (established in 1958), the Kazakh Institute of Judicial Examination (established in 1957), and the department of law of the Kazakh University (the department was created in 1955 from the Alma-Ata Juridical Institute).

REFERENCES

Istoriia filosofii, vol. 2. Moscow, 1957, pp. 420–22; vol. 4, Moscow, 1959, pp. 259–63.
Ocherki po istorii filosofskoi i obshchestvenno-politicheskoi mysli narodov SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1956. Pages 784–801.
Istoriia filosofii v SSSR, vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1968.
Beisembiev, K. Iz istorii obshchestvennoi mysli Kazakhstana vtoroi poloviny XIX veka. Alma-Ata, 1957.
Beisembiev, K. Ideino-politicheskie techeniia v Kazakhstane kontsa XIX—nachala XX veka. Alma-Ata, 1961.
Scientific institutions. During the Soviet period, a broad system of scientific institutions has been established in Kazakhstan. In 1972 the republic had more than 200 scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions. About 28, 000 scientific workers were employed in the republic, including 109 academicians, members, and corresponding members and 483 doctors and 7, 045 candidates of science (in 1940 there were 57 scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions, and more than 1, 700 scientific workers).
The leading scientific center of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, which encompasses 26 scientific institutions. It regularly publishes Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (in Russian and Kazakh, since 1944) and Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (geology series, since 1944; physics and mathematics series, since 1947; chemistry series, since 1947; biology series, since 1963; and social sciences series, since 1963).
The Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR is developing and strengthening its creative ties with research institutions in the USSR and abroad. Exchange of information, joint ventures, and the training of highly skilled personnel are conducted in cooperation with the academies of sciences of the republics of Middle Asia (mathematics, physics, geology, and history), the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (rock mechanics and mathematics), the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (chemistry and mathematics), and a number of branch institutes. Joint work is conducted with the scientists of Czechoslovakia (helminthology and organic chemistry), Poland (catalysis and high-energy physics), the German Democratic Republic (rock mechanics), and Mongolia (soil science and the chemistry of medicinal plants).
In addition to the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, higher educational institutions and branch research institutionsare conducting extensive research in the republic in nonferrousmetallurgy, mining, geology, construction and building materi-als, power engineering, hydraulic construction, land reclama-tion, and agriculture.
O. I. ALEKSEEV

Before the October Revolution of 1917 more than 1,000 Kazakh-language books were published, primarily in St. Petersburg, Kazan, Orenburg, and Semipalatinsk. The development of Kazakh book publishing was greatly influenced by the Revolution of 1905–07. In the early 20th century alone, about 400 democratic and enlightening Kazakh-language books were published. An important role in the formative process of publishing in the republics of Middle Asia was played by V. I. Lenin’s letter of June 4, 1920, to Gosizdat (the State Publishing House) and VSNKh (the Supreme Council on the National Economy): “The Kirghiz comrades are asking for help in order to acquire a type foundry, a print-shop, and paper. Will you please receive them and give them every assistance” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 51, p. 208). The first State Publishing House of Kazakhstan was established in November 1920, and by 1921 it had produced 20 titles with a total printing of 27, 000 copies. In 1972 six republic-wide book publishing houses were operating in Kazakhstan: the Kazakhstan Publishing House (sociopolitical literature), Zhazu-shi (fiction), Kainar (agricultural literature), Mektep (educational and pedagogical books), and Nauka and Kazakhskaia Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia (scientific books); there were also publishing divisions of various organizations and institutions. In 1971, 2, 096 books and pamphlets, with a total printing of more than 25 million copies, were issued by the publishing houses of Kazakhstan.

The progenitor of the Kazakh periodical press was the newspaper Turkistan ualaiatynyn gazeti (Newspaper of the Turkestan Region, 1870–82), which was published in Tashkent as a supplement to the official Russian newspaper Turkestanskie vedomosti (Turkestan Gazette). It was followed by Dala ualaiatynyn gazeti (Newspaper of the Steppe Region, 1888–1902), printed in Omsk, in which the classic works of Kazakh literature of Abai Kunanbaev were first published under the pseudonym of K. Zhaman-taev. The Tatar-language Bolshevik newspaper Oral (The Urals) was published during the Revolution of 1905–07 from Jan. 4 through Apr. 27, 1907. The proenlightenment newspaper Kazakhstan was published in Urda and Ural’sk from 1911 to 1913. The first Kazakh journal, Aikap (1911–1915), which was founded by the Kazakh democratic and subsequently Bolshevik poet M. Seralin, had a similar orientation. The Tatar-Kazakh journal Akmolda (named for the poet of the late 19th century; published 1911–16) was published in Troitsk. The newspaper Tirshilik (Life), the organ of the youth organization Zhas Kazakh (Young Kazakh), came out from September 1917 through July 1918. Eleven newspapers were published in Kazakhstan in 1913.

The press of Soviet Kazakhstan began with the newspapers Durystyk zholy (Path of Truth; February 1919, Urda), Kazakh ////(Kazakh Word; December 1919, Semipalatinsk), and Ushkyn (The Spark; December 1919, Orenburg). Publication of the newspaper Izvestiia Kirgizskogo kraia (News of the Kirghiz Region) began on Jan. 1, 1920.

In 1971, 361 newspapers were published, including 15 republic-wide, 34 oblast, 246 raion, 10 city, 55 local, and one kolkhoz, with an annual circulation of about 842 million copies.

The republic-wide newspapers include Sotsialistik Kazakhstan (Socialist Kazakhstan, since 1919), Leninshil zhas (Leninist Youth, since 1921), Kazakhstan mugalimi (Kazakhstan Teacher, since 1952), Kazakhstan pioneri (Kazakhstan Pioneer, since 1930), Kazakh adebieti (Kazakh Literature, since 1934), and Sport (since 1959) in Kazakh and Kazakhstanskaia pravda (Kazakhstan Pravda, since 1920), Leninskaia smena (Leninist Young Generation; since 1922), UchiteV Kazakhstana (Kazakhstan Teacher, since 1952), Druzhnye rebiata (Friendly Children, since 1933), and Sport (since 1959) in Russian.

Interrepublic newspapers are published for other nations and nationalities in their native languages: Kommunizm tugi (Banner of Communism, since 1957, with an appendix in Arabic script); Ieni khaiat (New Life, since 1970) and three raion newspapers in Uighur; Lenin kichi (Leninist Banner, since 1968) in Korean; Freundschaft (Friendship, since 1966) in German; and two raion newspapers in Uzbek.

In 1971, 159 journals and other periodical publications were issued, including the Kazakhstan kommunisti (Communist of Kazakhstan, since 1921), Zhuldyz (Star, since 1928), Zhalyn (Flame, since 1969), Kazakhstan aielderi (Women of Kazakhstan, since 1925), Madeniet zhane turmys (Culture and Life, since 1958), Bilim zhane enbek (Knowledge and Labor, since 1960), and Baldyrgan (Sprout, since 1958) in Kazakh; Ara (Bumblebee, since 1956) and Kazakhstannyn auyl sharuashylygi (Agriculture of Kazakhstan, since 1951) in Russian and Kazakh; and Partiinaia zhizn’ Kazakhstana (Party Life of Kazakhstan, since 1930), Narodnoe khoziaistvo Kazakhstana (National Economy of Kazakhstan, since 1926), AvtomobiVnyi transport Kazakhstana (Motor Vehicle Transportation of Kazakhstan, since 1958), Prostor (Vista, since 1935), Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana(Public Health in Kazakhstan, since 1941), and Koop-erator Kazakhstana (Cooperative Worker of Kazakhstan, since 1958) in Russian. In all, 25 journals, two agitators’ periodical pamphlets, 74 issues of scholarly works and transactions, and 58 bulletins were published in 1971; the annual circulation of journals and other periodicals aside from newspapers was 45.5 million copies. The Kazakh Telegraph Agency (KazTAG) has been in operation since 1921.

The first radio broadcasts began in 1923. In 1972 the average daily volume of radio broadcasting on five republic and 17 oblast programs was 64 hours; there were 200 raion and ten city radio editorial offices. The first television broadcasts began in 1958. In 1972, 15 television studios and more than 40 relay stations were in operation; total television broadcasting throughout the republic was 192 hours per day. Republic-wide radio and television broadcast in Kazakh, Russian, Korean, Uighur, German, and Uzbek. Television broadcasts are relayed from Moscow; Alma-Ata, Dzhezkazgan, and Gur’ev receive the program “Orbit.” The House of Republic Radio and Television Broadcasting and the KazakhtelefiFm studio are located in Alma-Ata.

REFERENCES

Bekkhojin, Kh. Qazaq baspasözĭnĭng damn zholdarï. Alma-Ata, 1964.
Jirenshin, Ä. M. Qazaq kĭiaptarï tarikhïnan. Alma-Ata, 1971.
SH. ELEUKENOV

Kazakh oral folk poetry, whose roots go far back into antiquity, is rich in songs, tales, proverbs and sayings, heroic and lyric-epic narrative poems, aitys (song and poetry folk singing competitions), and lyric poetry (tolgau, philosophical meditations, and arnau, dedications). The folklore includes more than 40 genres, a considerable number of which are unique to it (petitions and letters in song form). Songs are divided into pastorals, ritual and historical songs, and songs of everyday life. There is a great wealth of tales: Aldar-Kose and Zhirenshe—wits and jokers who cunningly deceived their enemies—were popular heroes of Kazakh tales. Heroic epics, particularly in the oldest narrative poems (Koblandy, Er-Targyn, Alpamys, and Kambar-batyr), sing of the exploits of the heroes (batyrs) who defended the independence of their people in constant battles. No less beloved were lyric-epic narrative poems (Kozy-Korpesh, Baian-Slu, and Kyz-Zhibek), whose main content was the true, self-sacrificing love of young heroes and their sometimes tragic fate.

The earliest works of oral folk poetry whose authorship may be considered to be established date from the 15th century (the akyn Kaztugan Suiunish-uly); from the 16th century, Asan-Kaigy, whose name became legend, Dospambet, and Shalkiiz are known. The works of Bukhar-zhyrau Kalkamanov (1693–1787; according to other sources, 1686–1799) enjoyed great popularity. He wrote poems that were sharp and politically topical for their times; however, they expressed a feudal ideology.

At the turn of the 19th century, a new stage of Kazakh culture, including literature, developed as a result of the unification of a considerable part of Kazakhstan with Russia. The akyns Makhambet Utemisov (1804—46), Sherniiaz Zharylgasov (1817–81), and Suiumbai Aronov (1827–96) called upon the people to struggle against their oppressors—the bais and tsarist satraps. The work of these akyns was of a democratic nature; they saw and understood the advantages of Kazakhstan’s introduction to the life of Russia. Dulat Babataev (1802–71), Shortanbai Kanaev (1818–81), and Murat Monkeev (1843–1906) presented a different, clerical-conservative orientation in Kazakh culture: they criticized the existing order from the standpoint of the idealization of the patriarchal past and extolled religion (Islam).

The second half of the 19th century produced the akyns Bir-zhan Kozhagulov (1834–97) and Aset Naimanbaev (1867–1924) and the poet Sara Tastanbekova, as well as Akhan Koramsin (Akhan-Sere, 1843–1913), Zhaiau-Musa Baizhanov (1835–1929), and Dzhambul Dzhabaev (1846–1945). Their names were associated with the rapid growth of the aitys not only as a form of poetic competition but also as an effective means of expressing public opinion, which was directed against oppression and defended social justice.

The Kazakh enlightenment began in the mid-19th century. Its most outstanding representatives were the ethnographer and folklorist Chokan Valikhanov (1835–65); the pedagogical scholar and writer Ibrai Altynsarin (1841–89), who developed a Kazakh alphabet based on Russian script; and the poet and democrat Abai Kunanbaev (1845–1904), an innovator of poetic form and the creator of an entire school of poetry. All of these figures propagandized progressive Russian culture and called upon the Kazakh people to proceed along its path.

Written Kazakh realistic literature was inaugurated by the work of Abai. His lyrics and satire and the prose philosophical exhortation Gakliia reflected the life of Kazakh society in those times from the standpoint of critical realism. Abai’s traditions were continued in the early 20th century by the writers and democrats Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov (1893–1920), Sabit Donentaev (1894–1933), Spandiiar Kubeev (1878–1956), Muk-hamedzhan Seralin (1872–1929), Beket Utetleuov (1874–1946), Tair Zhomartbaev (1891–1937), and Berniiaz Kuleev (1895–1923). Progressive creative forces grouped around the journal Aikap (published 1911–15). After the victory of the October Revolution, democratic writers took the side of Soviet power and served the construction of the new society through their literary work.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the “bibliophiles’ “group was also active in Kazakh literature. The bibliophiles preached religious-patriarchal views. The most prominent were Nurzhan Naushabaev (1859–1919) and Mashur-Zhusup Kopeev (1857–1931). Their activity in collecting folklore and specimens of written literature was much to their credit.

Openly nationalistic writers who crossed over to the camp of the ideological opponents of Soviet power after October (A. Baitursunov, M. Dulatov, and M. Zhumabaev) were associated with the reactionary newspaper Kazakh (1913).

Along with written prerevolutionary Kazakh literature, folklore also developed. The work of such folk akyns as Dzhambul Dzhabaev, Nurpeis Baiganin (1860–1945), Doskei Alimbaev (1855–1946), Nartai Bekezhanov (1890–1954), Omar Shipin (1879–1963), and Kenen Azerbaev (born 1884) played a large role in the cultural and social life of Kazakhstan; these akyns created acutely social works that were disseminated among the people. After the October Revolution, they became active builders of Soviet society.

The founders of the Soviet Kazakh literature of socialist realism were the poet and revolutionary Saken Seifullin (1894— 1939), the poets Baimagambet Iztolin (1899–1921) and Il’ias Dzhansugurov (1894—1937); and the writers Bembet Mailin (1894–1939), Mukhtar Auezov (1897–1961), and Sabit Muka-nov (born 1900). They were the source of all genres of contemporary Kazakh literature, vividly and uncompromisingly exposing the social structure of prerevolutionary conditions and vestiges of that structure. The hero of the new era—the man of labor who transforms the world—announced himself for the first time in their works: the narrative poem Sovetstan (1925) and the novella The Excavators (1928) by Seifullin and the novella The Communist Woman Raushan (1929) by Mailin.

In the mid-1920’s, Kazakh literature was bolstered by fresh forces, mainly poets: Isa Baizakov (1900–46), Askar Tokmagam-betov (born 1905), Kalmakan Abdukadyrov (1903–64), Tair Zharokov (1908–65), Abdil’da Tazhibaev (born 1909), Gali Or-manov (born 1907), and Dikhan Abilev (born 1907). They searched for new means of representation: contemporary themes brought to poetry a new vocabulary and new images and rhythms, although Soviet Kazakh poetry did not break away from the classical realist traditions established by the work of Abai or from the traditions represented in the best oral folk poetry.

The works of the prose writers Gabiden Mustafin (born 1902) and Gabit Musrepov (born 1902) appeared during the same period. The Kazakh Association of Proletarian Writers, which played a large role in the consolidation and ideological education of writers and in their struggle against the bourgeois nationalist ideology, was established in 1926. Publication of the literary anthology Zhyl kusy (The First Signs) began in 1927, and the journal Zhana adebiet (New Literature) began publication in 1928.

The 1930’s were characterized by further expansion of the subject matter of Kazakh literature and more thorough assimilation of socialist realism. The Writers’ Union of Kazakhstan was created in 1934, and the first ten-day festival of Kazakh literature and art was held in Moscow in 1936. At about that time, Kazakh literature became a mature multigenre literature, reflecting enthusiasm for the construction of socialism. Seifullin’s narrative poems Albatross (1933) and Sotsialistan (1935) sing of the great Lenin and depict the liberation struggle of the people and of its new life; the hero of the novella Fruits (1935) is the man of free labor. Mailin’s novel Azamat Azamatych (1934) portrays the struggle against bourgeois nationalism, the struggle for the collectivization of the Kazakh aul. The novel by Sattar Erubaev (1914–1937), My Contemporaries (published posthumously in 1939), is dedicated to the working class. The image of the contemporary figure became firmly established in the short stories of Mailin, Auezov, Musrepov, and Al’zhappar Abishev (born 1907) and in Dzhansugurov’s novel Comrades (1933, unfinished).

One of the first novels of social history in Kazakh literature was Mukanov’s Enigmatic Banner (new edition, Botagoz, 1938), about the fate of the people described against the background of the uprising of 1916, the October Revolution, and the struggle for Soviet power. A picture of the popular uprising of 1916 was also given in Auezov’s drama Night Thunder (1934). Kazakh poetry of the 1930’s reached its peak with Dzhansugurov’s narrative poems The Steppe (1930), The Musician (1935), and Kulager (1936), whose characters were the people and folk poets. Plays on themes of folk lyric-epic narrative poems appeared (Aiman Sholpan, 1934, by Auezov, and Kozy-Korpesh and Baian-Slu, 1940, by Musrepov) with works on contemporary subjects, which occupied the leading place (the plays of Mailin and Tazhibaev and of Shakhmet Khusainov, 1906–72).

During the Great Patriotic War, Kazakh literature, like all Soviet literature, reflected the military exploits and feats of labor of the Soviet people. The Kazakh poetry of those years provided lofty civic and patriotic poems in both the lyric and epic genres: the lyric verses of Tokmagambetov, Zharokov, Ormanov, Abu Sarsenbaev (born 1905), Dzhuban Muldagaliev (born 1920), Khalizhan Bekkhozhin (born 1913), and Khamid Ergaliev (born 1916) were printed in newspapers, including papers of the front, and were read in the trenches. The narrative poem Tale of the Death of a Poet (1944) by Kasym Amanzholov (1911–55), dedicated to the deeds of the poet Abdulla Dzhumagaliev, who perished near Moscow, enjoyed great success. The lyrical-philosophical essays / Want to Live by Baubek Bulkishev (1916— 44), who died at the front, were published in 1942. Patriotic enthusiasm also permeated the work of the folk akyns. Dzam-bul’s poem “Leningraders, My Children!” became popular throughout the country.

The theme of war was reflected in the plays In the Hour of Trial (produced in 1941) by Auezov, Guard of Honor (1942) by Auezov and Abishev, and AmangeVdy (produced in 1936) by Khusainov. Mustafin published Shiganak (1945), a novel about the toilers of the rear.

During the postwar years, Kazakh literature continued to develop themes associated with the war. Among the works to appear were the novels Soldier From Kazakhstan (1949) by Musrepov, Courland (1950) by Abdizhamil Nurpeisov (born 1924), and Stormy Days (1957) by Takhavi Akhtanov (born 1923) and the war memoirs Moscow Is Behind Us (1959) of the writer and soldier Baurdzhan Momysh-ula (born 1910). Poets also continued themes of war in lyrical and narrative poems (narratives by Zharokov about Zoia Kosmodem’ianskaia and by Muldagaliev about Musa DzhaliP).

In 1956, Auezov completed the tetralogy Path of Abai, the first book of which was published in 1942. This work, which evoked a response in many lands, exerted considerable influence on Kazakh and other fraternal literatures. In Auezov’s epic novel, national epic traditions are enriched by the artistic experience of all of Soviet literature. Major works on historical-revolutionary subjects were produced by Mukanov (The School of Life, 1949–53), Musrepov (The Awakened Land, 1953), Mustafin (After the Storm, 1959), Khamza Esenzhanov (born 1908; The Iaik Is a Bright River, 1957–60), and Nurpeisov (the trilogy Blood and Sweat, books 1–2, 1959–70).

Many Kazakh writers turned to contemporary themes during the postwar years. Contemporary heroes—toilers of the village, workers, members of the intelligentsia, and youth—are brought to life on the pages of the novels Syr Darya (1947–48) by Mukanov, The Wide Open Spaces (1949) by Gabdul Slanov (1911–69), Karaganda (1952) by Mustafin, Temir-Tau (2 books, 1960–62; book 2 was published under the title Doctor Darkhanov ) by Zein Shashkin (1912–66), The Young Generation (published posthumously, 1962) by Auezov, The White Stallion (1962) by Taken Alimkulov (born 1922), Caravan Goes Toward the Sun (1963) by Anuar Alimzhanov (born 1930), Horn on the Steppe (1964, with K. Altaiskii) by Mukhamedzhan Karataev (born 1910), and The Skirmish (1966) by Il’ias Esenberlin (born 1915).

The development of epic forms—topical and lyrical narrative poems and the novel in verse—was particularly intense in the poetry of the postwar decades. Many narrative poems were written on historical themes, including Maria, Daughter of Egor (1949–54) by Bekkhozhin, Bell in the Steppe (1957) by Gafu Kairbekov (born 1928), Kurmangazy (1958) by Ergaliev, and Estai-Khorlan by Muzafar Alimbaev (born 1923). Narrative poems about creative labor and the rich emotional world of Soviet people were written by Tazhibaev (Portraits, 1957), Zharokov (Steel Born in the Steppe, 1954), Muldagaliev (A Widow’s Fate, 1961), and Olzhas Suleimenov (born 1936; Earth, Bow Down to Manl, 1961).

Complex social, moral, and ethical conflicts were the center of attention of playwrights: Khusainov’s Spring Wind (1952), The Single Family (1948) by Abishev, and Before the Wedding and Friends (both 1964) by Tazhibaev. The traditions of the historical and historical-revolutionary genres have also been developed in dramaturgy: Chokan Valikhanov (1954) by Mukanov, Ibrai Altynsarin (1953) by Musatai Akhinzhanov (born 1905), Our Gani (1957) by Khusainov, and Zhaiau-Musa (1965) by Zeitin Akishev (born 1911).

Science fiction began to develop successfully in the early 1960’s: the novellas The Seventh Wave (1964) and From Fire to the Atom by Medeu Sarsekeev (born 1936), and The Alpha of Genius (1967) by Shokan Alimbaev (born 1941).

The traditions of children’s literature were established in the mid-19th century by Altynsarin. In the Soviet period, Sapargali Begalin (born 1895), Utebai Turmanzhanov (born 1905), and Berdibek Sokpakbaev (born 1924) have been working successfully in this area.

At the Sixth Congress of Writers of Kazakhstan (1971), the main trends of contemporary Kazakh literature were recognized to be its intellectualism and the magnitude of the quest and interests, based on the growing requirements of readers and on the breadth and multifaceted nature of the problems that concern Soviet man. This idea is confirmed not only by the work of writers of the older generation but also by that of writers who came to literature in the 1960’s, such as the prose writers Azil’-khan Nurshaikhov (born 1922), Magzum Sundetov (born 1936), Abish Kekil’baev (born 1939), Satimzhan Sanbaev (born 1939), Sain Muratbekov (born 1936), and Saken Zhunusov (born 1934) and the poets Kadyr Murzaliev (born 1935), Tumanbai Muldagaliev (born 1935), Sagi Zhienbaev (born 1934), Erkesh Ibragim (born 1930), Mukagali Makataev (born 1931), and Zhu-meken Nazhmetdinov (born 1935).

Literary criticism made its appearance in the early 1930’s with the articles of Seifullin, Dzhansugurov, Auezov, Kazhim Dzhumaliev (1907–68), Karataev, and Esmagambet Ismailov (1911–66). In the early 1970’s this field was striving to be equal to the tasks posed by contemporary Kazakh literature and the development of research thought in literary criticism.

The M. O. Auezov Institute of Literature and Art of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR consolidates scholarly forces. The works of Malik Gabdulin (1915–73), Temirgali Nur-tazin (1907–73), Beisenbai Kenzhebaev (born 1904), Bel’gibai Shalabaev (born 1911), Aikyn Nurkatov (1928–65), Iskak Di-usenbaev (born 1910), Serik Kirabaev (born 1927), Rakhmankul Berdybaev (born 1927), Myrzabek Duisenov (born 1928), and Tursynbek Kakishev (born 1928) are well known. Along with Kazakh scholars, Russian literary specialists and critics continue to deal with problems of the history and theory of Kazakh literature; among them are M. S. Sil’chenko (1898–1970), M. I. Fetisov (1907–60), K. L. Zelinskii (1896–70), Z. S. Kedrina (born 1904), N. S. Smirnova (born 1908), and E. V. Lizunova (born 1926). The literary journals Zhuldyz (Star) and Prostor (Vista) and the newspaper Kazakh adebieti (Kazakh Literature) are published.

As early as the 19th century, the Kazakh enlighteners Abai Kunanbaev and Ibrai Altynsarin translated works of A. S. Pushkin, M. Iu. Lermontov, I. A. Krylov, and L. N. Tolstoy into Kazakh. In the Soviet period the translation into Kazakh of works of other literatures of the peoples of the USSR and of world literature has achieved broad scope. The works of Kazakh writers have been translated into many languages of the peoples of the USSR and other countries. An important role in the communication of Kazakh literature with the literatures of other peoples of the USSR has been played by the translations of L. S. Sobolev, who is also the author of a number of works of literary criticism on Kazakh literature, by A. N. Pantielev, Iu. O. Dom-brovskii, I. P. Shukhov, Iu. P. Kazakov, N. I. Anov, and A. I. Bragin, and by the poets K. Altaiskii, K. Vanshenkin, E. Vinokurov, A. B. Gatov, P. Kuznetsov, M. Lukonin, M. L’vov, I. Sel’vinskii, la. Smeliakov, D. Snegin, and M. Tar-lovskii.

During the period of Soviet Kazakh literature, more than 1,000 books by writers of other peoples of the USSR and about 300 works by foreign writers have been translated into Kazakh. More than 400 books by Kazakh writers have been published in other republics of the country. The M. O. Auezov Institute of Literature and Art of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR has a division for the study of the relation of Kazakh literature and the literatures of other peoples and countries.

The Writers’ Union of Kazakhstan performs a great deal of ideological-educational and organizational-creative work. Its first congress was held in 1934, second in 1939, third in 1954, fourth in 1959, fifth in 1966, and sixth in 1971. There are sections of Russian and Uighur writers in the Writers’ Union of Kazakhstan. Korean and German writers also live and work in the republic.

REFERENCES

Shalabaev, B. Ocherki istorii kazakhskoi dorevoliutsionnoi literatury. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Istoriia kazakhskoi literatury, vols. 1–3. Alma-Ata, 1968–71.
Ocherk istorii kazakhskoi sovetskoi literatury. Moscow, 1960.
Istoriia literatur narodov Srednei Azii i Kazakhstana. Moscow, 1960.
Karataev, M. Kazakhskaia literatura. Moscow, 1960.
Karataev, M. Ot dombry do knigi. Moscow, 1969.
Kedrina, Z. S. Iz zhivogo istochnika (Ocherki sovetskoi kazakhskoi literatury), 2nd ed., expanded. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Fetisov, M. I. Zarozhdenie kazakhskoi publitsistiki. Alma-Ata, 1961.
Lizunova, E. Sovremennyi kazakhskii roman. Alma-Ata, 1964.
Akhmetov, Z. A. Kazakhskoe stikhoslozhenie. Alma-Ata, 1964.
Sidel’nikov, V. Bibliograficheskii ukazateV po kazakhskomu ustnomu tvorchestvu, fasc. 1. Alma-Ata, 1951.
Kazakhskie literaturnye sviazi: Bibliografich. ukazateV. Alma-Ata, 1968.
Grekhovodov, N., V. Daniliuk, and P. Kosenko. Pisateli Kazakhstana: Biograficheskii spravochnik. Alma-Ata, 1969.
Narymbetov, A. Kazakhskaia sovetskaia literatura: Bibliograficheskii ukazateV po literaturovedeniiu i kritike, 1917–1940. Alma-Ata, 1970.
Ghabdullin, M. Qazaq khalqïnïng auïz ädebieti. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Jŭmaliev, K. Qazaq eposï men ädebiet tarikhining mäselelerĭ Alma-Ata, 1958.
Kenjebaev, B. Qazaq khalqïnïng XX ghasïr basïndaghi demokrat jazu-shïlarï. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Tajĭbaev, Ä. Qazaq dramaturgiyäsïnïng damuï men kalïptasuï. Alma-Ata, 1971.
Qazaq fol’Kloristikasï. Alma-Ata, 1972.
M. KARATAEV

Architecture. In the Bronze Age, the tribes that inhabited Kazakhstan left relics associated with the Andronovo culture. The settlements of that time (Atasu and Karkaralinsk in Karaganda Oblast, Alekseevka in Kustanai Oblast, and others) consisted of ten to 40 rectangular semisubterranean dwellings and domestic structures. Religious structures, such as dolmens, menhirs, burial enclosures made of stone slabs (the Begaza burial ground in central Kazakhstan), and burial mounds, have survived. In the period from the first millennium b.c. through the first centuries a.d., the tribes that inhabited Kazakhstan (the Sacae, Usun, and Kangly) had, in addition to the felt yurt, which is a portable dwelling, a stationary house made of pise or mud brick in fortified settled villages (Chirikrabat, fifth to second centuries b.c., and Babyshmulla, fourth to second centuries b.c., both in Kzyl-Orda Oblast). Large barrows with mounds faced with stone and with timbered interment chambers (the Besshatyr burial ground on the Hi River, Alma-Ata Oblast), as well as burial structures made of large mud bricks (the site of the fortified settlement of Tegisken, ninth to eighth centuries b.c., Kzyl-Orda Oblast), with a number of rooms, have survived. The domed burial structure of Balanda II (fourth to second centuries b.c., Kzyl-Orda Oblast) was unique for its time.

In addition to the fortified settled villages, the Usun and Kangly also had “headquarters” cities: Chiga in Semirech’e southeast of Lake Balkhash and Bitian’ on the middle course of the Syr Darya. From the sixth to eighth centuries, when Kazakhstan was part of the Turkic Kaganate, and from the eighth to tenth centuries when is was part of the Turgesh and Karluk kaganates, the cities of Isfijab (from the 11th century, Sairam, Chimkent Oblast), and Taraz (now Dzhambul) developed, and fortresses and castle-estates were constructed (the castle of the fortified settlement of Baba-Ata, on the northern slopes of the Karatau, Chimkent Oblast).

In the eighth century, with the spread of Islam, new types of buildings—mosques and madrasas—appeared and new architectural and construction methods—fired brick, vaults and domes, wall revetment of terra-cotta. Sardabehs (cisterns), baths, caravansaries, and mausoleums were built. Conical mausoleums of stone slabs have survived from the eighth to tenth centuries (Kozy-Korpesh and Baian-Slu on the Aiaguz River northeast of Lake Balkhash). In southern Kazakhstan during the Karakhanid state (tenth to 12th centuries), cities that developed from ancient settlements (Taraz and others) had a tripartite structure: the citadel, shahristan (urban sections), and rabat (faubourg).

In the tenth century, a type of central-plan memorial structure with a square base capped by a spherical or conical dome on arched squinches (the mausoleums of Babadzhi-khatun in the village of Golovachevka, near Dzhambul, tenth to 11th centuries, and Aisha-Bibi), began to take shape; rectangular buildings with domes and portals (the Syrly-tam mausoleum, Kzyl-Orda Oblast, 11th to 12th centuries), with a massive portal and roof, emerged later. Cities were rebuilt after the Mongol-Tatar invasion in the second half of the 13th century, and during the 14th to 16th centuries they achieved an economic and cultural upsurge (Sygnak, Taraz, and Sairam). Monumental structures—for example, the mausoleum of Alash-khan near Ulutau (Karaganda Oblast, second half of the 13th century) and the mausoleum-mosque complex of Khodzha Akhmed Iasavi in the city of Iasa (now the city of Turkestan, Chimkent Oblast; late 14th century)—were erected. The Dzungarian invasions of the 1640’s to 1720’s led to a decline in the culture of Kazakhstan; construction of monumental buildings, such as mausoleums and mosques, decreased, and architectural mastery was lost.

Russian military fortifications arose along the borders of Kazakhstan during the 17th and 18th centuries: Iaitskii Gorodok (Ural’sk), Gur’ev, Orenburg, Orsk, and Semipalatinsk. The economic upsurge after Kazakhstan’s final unification with Russia in the 1860’s spurred construction. The cities of northern and eastern Kazakhstan that grew from military fortifications generally consisted of four main parts: the fortress, the Cossack stanitsa (settlement), the “Tatar faubourg,” and the city proper, with its rectangular system of streets.

Division into “old” and “new” parts was characteristic of the old cities of southern Kazakhstan. One-story houses, administrative and commercial buildings, and railroad stations were constructed, primarily in the eclectic spirit; mosques and madrasas were built. Traditional vaulted and domed construction was used in building mausoleums, and ornamented tiles, stone carving, and fresco painting were used for decoration. Dome-and-portal mausoleums of fired brick (Zhuzdena, first half of the 19th century, and Tort-Kara, 1840’s, both in Karaganda Oblast) or central domed shell-rock mausoleums (in the area of Senek on the Mangyshlak Peninsula) were built. Sagana-tamy, or grave structures (rectangular, without roofs; walls decorated with carving), which were known as early as the Middle Ages, were widespread in western Kazakhstan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Kulup-tasy, or monuments in the form of carved stone columns, are frequently encountered.

In the Soviet period as early as the 1920’s, simultaneous with repair and restoration work, there was construction of residential and public buildings in Kzyl-Orda, Chimkent, and other cities in which the architecture attempted to use the national traditions—iwans, courtyards, and so on. Industrialization, which expanded in the 1920’s and 1930’s, prompted intensive development of architecture and urban construction. Massive construction of well-equipped residential and public buildings was undertaken in the growing old cities and in the new cities —Balkhash, Karaganda, and Ridder (now Leninogorsk)—and settlements—Achisai, LengerugoP (now the city of Lenger), and Dzhezkazgan (now a city). Cities, settlements, and plants grew up along the Turkestan-Siberia railroad. The development of the petroleum industry on the Emba River prompted new construction in Gur’ev. Buildings in the spirit of Soviet constructivism (Government House, now the university building, in Alma-Ata) were erected in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s.

The architecture of the mid-1930’s and the 1940’s was characterized by classical elements (porticoes, colonnades, and pilasters), often combined with traditional national architecture (vaulted lancet windows and other national ornamental motifs). The best structures of that time include the medical institute and the Abai Kazakh Theater of Opera and Ballet in Alma-Ata. However, the uncritical use of the legacy of the country sometimes led during the prewar years and first decade after the war to eclecticism and archaization.

After the Great Patriotic War and particularly after the second half of the 1950’s, construction developed on a still larger scale. Young cities grew and their layout was improved, and new cities were created (Rudnyi, Abai, Shakhtinsk, Ermak, and Sere-briansk) and old ones reconstructed. During the 1950’s administrative buildings (Government House in Alma-Ata), palaces of culture, drama and motion-picture theaters, school buildings, and sports facilities were constructed in Alma-Ata and other cities. Industrial methods of construction were introduced extensively in Kazakhstan, as in other republics, beginning in the late 1950’s. The construction of the late 1950’s and 1960’s (the Palace of Virgin Lands Workers in Tselinograd, the Hotel Kazakhstan, the Palace of Sports, and the Lenin Palace in Alma-Ata) was marked by rationality of layout, ease and clarity of architectural forms, and decorative monumental art.

Residential construction acquired vast scope during the 1960’s. Vast residential sections of large-panel homes that take into consideration the natural and climatic conditions of Kazakhstan (earthquake-proof and sun-shielding structures) have been built in Alma-Ata, Karaganda, Pavlodar, Chimkent, Tselinograd, and other cities; general plans have been compiled for large cities (the general plan for Alma-Ata, 1960–63; architects, G. A. Bobovich and L. K. Vertousov) and new settlements. Construction in Alma-Ata during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s has been characterized by taller buildings and by innovation in the architectural forms of residential structures. The Medeo high-mountain stadium has been built near Alma-Ata (1972; architects, V. Z. Katsev, A. S. Kainarbaev, and others; engineers, M. V. Plakhotnikov and others). The development of the virgin and unused lands since 1954 inaugurated intensive contruction of rural settlements. The Architects’ Union of the Kazakh SSR was founded in Alma-Ata in 1935.

M. M. MENDIKULOV

Fine and decorative-applied arts. The earliest relics of art in Kazakhstan are rock engravings of animals, which date to the Paleolithic era in the Karatau and Khantau mountains and the Neolithic era in the Dzhasybai grotto, Pavlodar Oblast, and elsewhere. Remains of the Andronovo culture—cliff totem images of animals (deer, goats, and so on), rock pictures of hunting scenes (in the Tamgaly gorge, Alma-Ata Oblast, and elsewhere), and earthenware vessels with geometric designs applied by carving, tooling, and stamping—have come down from the Bronze Age. The art of the Sacae, which was associated with Scythian culture, was rich in pictures of real and fantastic wild animals, which are part of the “animal style”—gold plates with bas-relief pictures of deer from one of the Chilik barrows (seventh to sixth centuries b.C.) and bronze figurines of winged lionesses on the sacrificial table from the Issyk treasure (fifth to third centuries b.C.). An openwork gold Usun diadem from the Kargala treasure (second century b.C. to second century a.d.), with dynamic figures of deer, birds, winged horses, and a dragon, was also executed in the animal style.

The fine arts of Kazakhstan during the Middle Ages (seventh to 17th centuries) were represented by stone sculptures of men, women, and animals and by bronze figurines of women. Among the masterworks of decorative-applied art from this period are yurt-shaped clay vessels for storing bones (ossuaries); ceramic crockery, both unglazed—decorated with stuccoed, incised, and stamped designs—and glazed (the city of Taraz was the center) with a characteristic combination of black, brown, yellow, and red; and hide or metal articles decorated with a distinctive national design marked by large, clear patterns of scrolls grouped in rhombuses and circles.

The traditions of decorative-applied art were maintained during the 18th and 19th centuries. All items—for example, yurts and domestic articles—were decorated with the national design. An important furnishing of the yurt was the felt rug decorated with patterns—the tekemet (with a sunken, indistinct pattern of pale blue, golden yellow, and red), syrmak (mainly black and white, with a characteristic clear graphic pattern), and tus kHz (decorated with applique work of red and black cloth, frequently combined with embroidery); woven rugs with multicolored patterns were also important. The woven rugs were both napless (alasha), with alternating ornamented strips, and with a nap (tukti kilem); the napped rugs had borders with designs that differed from the patterns of the field. Chain-stitch and satin-stitch silk or wool embroidery, gold needlework, carving (primarily bas-relief) and wood inlay with bone, tanning (stamping, inlay with contrasting hides, embroidery), and jewelry-making (stamping, engraving, inlay, filigree, niello, and large insets of carnelian) were widespread. Works of representational art reflecting the life of the Kazakh people were created in the 19th century (drawings and watercolors by the Kazakh artist Ch. Valikhanov and by T. G. Shevchenko, paintings and drawings by V. V. Vereshchagin, and so on).

In the Soviet period as early as the late 1920’s and the 1930’s, an entire galaxy of national painters and graphic artists worked in close cooperation with the Russian painters and graphic artists N. G. Khludov, N. I. Krutil’nikov, and V. I. Antoshchen-ko-Olenev. These Kazakh artists, who displayed a lively interest in the new phenomenon of Soviet reality as well as in the revolutionary past of the Kazakh people, included A. Tashbaev, Kh. Khodzhikov and K. Khodzhikov, A. Ismailov, and A. Kasteev. Their works were marked by attempts to master small-scale forms and to develop a national artistic form of expression. During the Great Patriotic War artists worked on battle and historical paintings that told of the heroism of the Soviet people and on portraits of heroes of the front and rear; they executed posters and cartoons for the “Windows of Kaz-TAG” exhibits.

The professional craftsmanship of artists began to grow in the mid-1940’s and the first half of the 1950’s; the narrative painting (A. Ismailov and A. Kasteev), as well as the portrait and landscape (A. M. Cherkasskii, M. S. Lizogub, and L. P. Leont’ev), developed further. At the same time, however, works marked by a tendency to make pronouncements were often created. Young artists educated in the institutes of Moscow, Leningrad, and other cities began to play a significant role in the development of Kazakh art in the late 1950’s. Their work of the 1960’s and early 1970’s is notable for its striving to communicate the emotional state of humankind and its internal connections with the surrounding world, a state that is embodied at times in images of generalized symbolic resonance. This tendency began a quest for new means of expression. Among the prominent painters of this period are M. S. Kenbaev, K. T. Tel’zhanov, A. M. Stepa-nov, S. A. Mambeev, K. M. Shaiakhmetov, and S. A. Aitbaev. N. S. Gaev, R. Sakhi, Ch. B. Kenzhebaev, E. M. Sidorkin, and I. E. Kvachko are working in graphics (illustrations, prints, and small-scale drawings), and Kh. I. Naurzbaev, B. A. Tulekov, and T. S. Dosmagambetov work in small-scale and monumental sculpture, primarily portraits. V. V. Teliakovskii, A. I. Nena-shev, A. G. Galimbaeva, and G. M. Ismailova have played important roles in the development of theatrical set design. Decorative applied artists include jewelers and the wood and bone carvers O. Kenebaev, L. M. Khodzhikova, and R. S. Sar-senbin.

The Artists’ Union of the Kazakh SSR was founded in Alma-Ata in 1940 (from 1933 through 1940 it was the organizing committee of the Artists’ Union). N.-B. Nurmukhammedov

REFERENCES

Basenov, T. K. Arkhitekturnye pamiatniki v raione Sam. Alma-Ata, 1947.
Mendikulov, M. M. Pamiatniki arkhitektury poluostrova Mangyshlaka i Zapadnogo Ustiurta. Alma-Ata, 1956.
Basenov, T. K. Ornament Kazakhstana v arkhitekture. Alma-Ata, 1957.
Margulan, A. Kh., T. K. Basenov, and M. M. Mendikulov. Arkhitektura Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Tolstov, S. P. Po drevnim deVtam Oksa i Iaksarta. Moscow, 1962.
Akishev, K. A., and G. A. Kushaev. Drevniaia kuVtura sakov i usunei doliny reki Hi. Alma-Ata, 1963.
IzobraziteVnoe iskusstvo Kazakhstana. Editor in chief, B. G. Erzakovich. Alma-Ata, 1963.
Drevniaia kuVtura TsentraVnogo Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Mendykulov, M. M. Obnovlennaia Sary-Arka. Alma-Ata, 1967.
Sarykulova, G. Grafika Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1967.
Zhivopis’ Kazakhskoi SSR. [Album. Preface by N.-B. Nurmukhammedov.] Moscow [1970].
Narodnoe dekorativno-prikladnoe iskusstvo kazakhov. [Album. Introductory article by N. A. Orazbaeva.] Leningrad, 1970.
Nurmukhammedov, N.-B. Iskusstvo Kazakhstana. [Moscow, 1970].
Iskusstvo Kazakhskoi SSR. [Album. Compiled and with an introductory article by G. A. Sarykulova. Leningrad, 1972.]
Ejelgĭ mädeniet kualari. Alma-Ata. 1966.

Before the October Revolution the music of Kazakhstan was represented solely by folk works (songs and musical pieces, or kiui). On the musical background of the recitative, zhyrshi (narrators of folk tales) performed epic poems and legends, akyns shaped poetic improvisations, and ertekshi (storytellers) recounted tales and fables. Aitys (competitions), which attracted large numbers of people, were widespread.

Folk music is based on seven-tone diatonic major and minor scales in which elements of the pentatonic are prominent. It is characterized by distinctive intonations, well-developed song and instrumental forms, and diverse metric and rhythmic patterns. The existing musical instruments include the two-stringed dombra (plucked), the two-stringed kobyz (bowed), the sybyzgy (a wind instrument like the vertical, or end-blown, flute), and the dauylpaz (percussion); the syrnai (one- or two-voiced accordions of the Kasimov and Tatar varieties) became prevalent in the late 19th century.

Of great importance for the development of music was the work of folk composer-singers, instrumentalists, and composers of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries whose Weltanschauung was influenced by progressive Russian culture. Among these figures were Abai Kunanbaev, a composer and the founder of modern written Kazakh poetry, and Birzhan Kozhagulov, Zhaiau-Musa Baizhanov, Dauletkerei Shigaev, Kurmangazy Sagyrbaev, Ikhlas Dukenov, Mukhit Meraliev, Baluan-Sholak Baimurzin, Akhan-Sere Koramsin, Tattimbet Kazangapov, Tlepbergenov, and Sarmalai.

After the October Revolution a national socialist music culture was born and took shape. It drew on the exceedingly rich body of folk music, the assimilation of Russian and foreign classics, and the experience of Soviet music. Public musical life became considerably more active: amateur musical theater and choral groups were formed, and a great deal of musical folklore was written down and studied. The folk-song collections of A. V. Zataevich are well known. Competitions of singers, akyns, and musicians received support; one of the first was held in 1919 in the city of Vernyi, now Alma-Ata. New genres of folk music took shape, types of performance expanded, and choral singing and instrumental ensemble playing emerged. The first republic-wide gathering of folk musicians was held in 1934; the Kazakh Central Executive Committee of Kazakh Folk Instruments (after 1944, the Kurmangazy Orchestra) was organized. The Dzhambul Philharmonic Society, consisting of a Kazakh choir, an orchestra of folk instruments, a dance ensemble, and a group of folk singers, was created in 1935.

A music studio was founded in Alma-Ata in 1933, and in 1934 it was made into the Kazakh Musical Theater (after 1936, the Joint Theater of Kazakh and Russian Opera, and after 1937 the Kazakh Theater of Opera and Ballet). The singers K. Baiseitova, K. Dzhandarbekov, K. Baiseitov, and M. Erzhanov participated in performances. The first Kazakh opera, Kyz-Zhibek by E. G. Brusilovskii, based on the themes of the epic of the same name, was staged in 1934. It was followed by his operas Zhalbyr (1935) and Er-Targyn (Targyn the Valiant, 1937). The first national ballets were created (see below: Dance and ballet). The Kazakh popular song, instrumental chamber music, and symphonic and choral music developed during the 1930’s and 1940’s. New performance groups arose under the auspices of the radio committee: a symphony orchestra, an ensemble of Russian folk instruments, and a Kazakh choir for Soviet popular and folk songs. The organizing committee of the Composers’ Union of Kazakhstan was established in 1939.

Brusilovskii’s opera Gvardiia, algal (Guards, Forward!), about the heroism of the Soviet people in the struggle against the fascist German invaders, was presented in 1942. An important stage was reached with the opera Abai by A. K. Zhubanov and L. A. Khamidi (1944), which used Abai’s melodies, and Brusilovskii’s third symphony, Sary arka (The Golden Steppe, 1944). The first conservatory in Kazakhstan opened in Alma-Ata in 1944 (since 1963, the Kurmangazy Conservatory). In 1945 a sector of art criticism was organized under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.

In the postwar years Kazakh composers have chosen the path of free, creative reworking of the folk melodies, rather than the literal renderings of the past. Operas with themes grounded in contemporary reality are dominant; these include A mangeVdy by Brusilovskii and M. T. Tulebaev (staged in 1945; second version 1961) and Tulegen Tokhtarov by Zhubanov and Khamidi (staged in 1947; second version 1963). The staging in 1946 of Tulebaev’s opera Birzhan and Sara, about the folk composer Birzhan Kozhagulov, was a great event. Brusilovskii’s opera Dudarai, in which crowd scenes are the heart of dramatic development, was staged in 1953. The first Uighur opera was Nazugum by K. Kh. Kuzham’iarov (1956). Operas on contemporary subjects are Al-tyn taular (The Golden Mountains, 1960) by Kuzham’iarov and N. A. Tlendiev; the first Kazakh comic opera, Aisulu, by S. M. Mukhamedzhanov (1964); Kamar-Sulu (The Beauty Kamar, 1963) by E. R. Rakhmadiev, based on S. Toraigyrov’s novel of the same name; and Zhumbak kyz (The Mysterious Girl, 1971) by Mukhamedzhanov. The opera Glow of the Steppe (1967) by A. V. Bychkov, G. I. Grizbil, and Rakhmadiev, which dealt with the struggle for Soviet power in Semirech’e, was performed on the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution.

A large number of works have been written in the symphonic genres, including Kazakh Symphony by V. V. Velikanov (1947); the symphonic poems Kazakhstan by Tulebaev (1951) and Dzhailiauda by K. A. Musin (1948); the first Uighur symphonic poem, RizvanguV, by Kuzham’iarov (1950); the fourth, fifth, sixth (Kurmangazy), and seventh symphonies of Brusilovskii; the symphony The Storm by Mukhamedzhanov (1968, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of V. I. Lenin’s birth); and the symphony Zhiger (Energy, 1971) by G. A. Zhubanova (1971). A number of works have been written for the Kurmangazy Kazakh Orchestra of Folk Instruments.

The cantata-oratorio has developed greatly. The first Kazakh cantata, Soviet Kazakhstan, was written by Brusilovskii on the 30th anniversary of the October Revolution. Works of this genre include Tulebaev’s cantata The Lights of Communism (1951), Zhubanova’s oratorios Dawn on the Steppe (1960) and Lenin (1969), and the oratorios Voice of the Ages by Mukhamedzhanov (I960) and Ode to the Party by Rakhmadiev (1970). The suites For Peace by B. B. Baikadamov (1953) and Youth by Tulebaev and the choruses The Solitary Oak by Zhubanova, Evening on Balkhash by Rakhmadiev, and Song of the Party by Khamidi are important choral works. The songs of Tlendiev, Sh. Kaldaiakov, A. Espaev, and S. Karimbaev enjoy great popularity.

The development of instrumental chamber music has been slower than that of other genres. String quartets include Brusilovskii’s Song of Life and Kuzham’iarov’s In the Home Kolkhoz, based on Uighur melodies. Works for violin and piano include Velikanov’s Improvisation in Memory of Abai, Zhubanova’s Variations, and Brusilovskii’s suite Bozaigyr. An intonational connection with Soviet Russian songs is noticeable in the songs and romances of the 1950’s and 1960’s.

The formation and development of Soviet Kazakh music have been greatly aided by many Russian musicians: among composers, People’s Artist of the Kazakh SSR E. G. Brusilovskii and Honored Art Workers of the Kazakh SSR V. V. Velikanov and S. I. Shabel’skii; among conductors, Honored Art Workers of the Kazakh SSR G. A. Stoliarov, V. I. Piradov, and L. M. Shar-gorodskii; and among choral directors, People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR A. V. Preobrazhenskii, B. V. Lebedev, and A. V. Molodov.

Among the promiment singers of the Kazakh SSR are People’s Artists of the USSR R. M. Abdullin, R. T. Baglanova, R. U. Dzhamanova, E. B. Serkebaev, and B. A. Tulegenova and People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR M. M. Abdullin, A. Baikadamova, Sh. Beisekova, B. Dosymzhanov, Zh. Elebekov, R. Esimzhanova, K. Kenzhetaev, G. Kurman-galiev, Zh. Omarova, and A. B. Umbetbaev; among dombra players, People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR K. Zhantleuov and R. Omarov; among conductors, People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR G. N. Dugashev, Sh. K. Kazhgaliev, and F. Sh. Mansurov and Honored Art Worker of the Kazakh SSR T. O. Osmanov.

The musical achievements of Kazakhstan were displayed at the ten-day festivals of Kazakh art and literature in Moscow (1936 and 1958) and the Kazakh music weeks in the Tatar ASSR (1962), the Armenian SSR (1968), and the Uzbek SSR (1960 and 1971).

In 1972 the Kazakh Choir, the Kurmangazy Kazakh Orchestra of Folk Instruments, the Song and Dance Ensemble of the Kazakh SSR, the Symphony Orchestra, the Chamber Orchestra of the Kazakh Radio and Television, and the Gul’der Youth Variety Stage Ensemble were all active, as were the Kurmangazy Conservatory, music divisions of several pedagogical institutes and institutes of culture, 11 music colleges, and 156 children’s music and art schools.

The Composers’ Union was founded in 1939; in 1972 it had 40 members.

REFERENCES

Zataevich, A. V. 500 kazakhskikh pesen i kiuiev. Alma-Ata, 1931.
Zataevich, A. V. 1000pesen kazakhskogo naroda, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1963.
MuzykaVnaia kuVtura Kazakhstana: Sb. statei i materialov. [Alma-Ata] 1955.
Gizatov, B. Kazakhskii gosudarstvennyi orkestr narodnykh instrumentov imeni Kurmangazy. Alma-Ata, 1957.
Zhubanov, A. K. Struny stoletii: Ocherki o zhizni i tvorcheskoi deiateV-nosti kazakhskikh narodnykh kompozitorov. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Zhubanov, A. K. Solov’i stoletii. Alma-Ata, 1967. [Translated from Kazakh.]
Kanapin, A. K., and L. I. Varshavskiy Iskusstvo Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Kompozitory Sovetskogo Kazakhstana: Sb. statei. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Messman, VI. Vozrozhdenie pesni. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Ocherki po istorii kazakhskoi sovetskoi muzyki. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Erzakovich, B. G. Pesennaia kuVtura kazakhskogo naroda. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Istoriia muzyki narodov SSSR, vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1970–72.
Rsaldin. J. Ännen-operagha. Alma-Ata, 1971.
B. G. ERZAKOVICH

The Kazakh people have long had a distinctive dance culture. Like other forms of national art, dance was part of the way of life of the nomadic cattle raisers, and all aspects of that way of life were communicated in dance images. This is confirmed by the folk dances that have survived, including work dances (the ormek bi, or weavers’ dance), hunting dances (the koian bi, or the golden eagle’s hunt for the hare, and kusbegi-dauylpaz, or training of the hunting falcon), dance competitions (utys bi), comic, satirical, and humorous dances (nasybaishi), and dances imitating animals (orteke, the jumping goat; kara zhorga and tepenkok, the dance of the racehorse, or the trotter’s race; and aiu bi, the dance of the bear). In musical folklore there were lyrical dramatized dances with singing and round dances. Festivals based on the calendar of the work year were particularly popular. Competitive dances were performed at these festivals— dances displaying agility and endurance, as well as dance games, and night round dances about campfires. Wedding rites lasted several days and were vividly dramatized presentations in pantomime and comic dances. There were religious dances, performed only by shamans to cure the sick and “drive out the evil spirit.” In contrast to the Uzbeks, Tadzhiks, and other Eastern Muslim peoples, the Kazakhs had pair dances performed by boys and girls (koian berkut).

There were no schools for dance instruction, as there were in India, Japan, China, and other countries of the East; dancers transmitted their art from generation to generation. In the patriarchal-feudal society, each clan had its own professional masters who had the status of court jesters or belonged to the ranks of folk jester-comics, the ku. There were no definitive folk dance forms among the Kazakhs. Improvisation was an indispensable condition of dance folklore. The most characteristic features of dance were expressiveness of execution, abruptness of movement, mobility of the shoulders, “playing” of the joints, tension and agility of the body, and flexibility, which enables the dancers to execute complex acrobatic movements. The combination of vivid emotionality and diverse choreographic patterns was also typical, particularly in the dance competitions (utys bi and sylk-yma). The dance on horseback was most specific, but it was not bareback riding. All Kazakhs knew how to ride bareback, but it was only the professionals who danced while standing in the saddle; their horses also followed the rhythm. Dance was accompanied by the dombra or drum. The clear and energetic rhythm of the bi kiui (dance melodies) regulated the rhythm and tempo of the dance.

Prejudices hindered the development of dance culture; the art of dance did not spread as widely as music. During the feudal period, dancing for the enjoyment of the people was considered a “contemptible occupation,” the domain of the indigent. With the decay of the patriarchal-clan system and economic and social changes age-old customs and traditions fell into decline; ancient forms of folk dance were degraded, and by the end of the 19th century they had disappeared almost entirely.

Under the conditions of socialist society, with the development of material and intellectual culture and the creation of professional theater (the 1930’s), national dance developed. Ancient Kazakh dances, interpreted by professionals, were enriched by new expressive methods and content, and they moved from the stage of the professional theater to amateur folk groups. The aizhan kyz, kHz basu, tepenkok, mausymzhan, saunshi zhengei, beskyz, kelinchek, mergen, and kokpar became the most popular dances in folk entertainment.

In 1939, under the auspices of the Kazakh Philharmonic Society, the first folk dance company was created, with Honored Art Worker of the Kazakh SSR A. Ismailov as artistic director. The concert activity of People’s Artist of the Kazakh SSR Shara Zhienkulova (director of the Ensemble of Songs and Dances of the World) and Honored Artist of the Kazakh SSR N. Tapalova (director of the Song and Dance Ensemble) was an important contribution to the development of the art of folk dance. The Song and Dance Ensemble of the Kazakh SSR was created in 1955. Its repertoire includes old Kazakh dances, and the ensemble is also working hard to create a contemporary folk dance. The leading performers include Honored Artists of the Kazakh SSR Z. Rozmukhamedova and A. Ismailov. The Young Ballet of Alma-Ata (artistic director, Honored Artist of the Kazakh SSR B. G. Aiukhanov), a classical and folk choreographic dance company, was created in 1968. Its repertoire includes the Kazakh dances The Golden Eagle and the Fox, The Dance of the Akyns, Akku, and Bareback Riding and dance scenes from E. G. Brusilovskii’s opera Kyz-Zhibek and on epic subjects.

The first examples of stage dance appeared in the musical performance Aiman Sholpan (1934) and in the operas Kyz-Zhibek (1934), Zhalbyr (1935), and Er-Targyn (1937) by Brusi-lovskii. During the 1936–37 season, the Combined Kazakh and Russian Opera Theater (created in 1936; after 1937, the Kazakh Theater of Opera and Ballet) staged the ballets Coppelia by L. Delibes and Swan Lake by P. I. Tchaikovsky. The first national ballet, V. V. Velikanov’s Kalkaman and Mamyr, was staged in 1938; I. N. Nadirov’s Koktem, in 1940; Velikanov’s Kambar and Nazym, in 1950; On The Road of Friendship (The Dzungarian Gates), by N. A. Tlendiev, L. B. Stepanov, and E. V. Manaev, in 1958; G. A. Zhubanova’s Akkanat and Hiroshima (Legend of the White Bird), in 1966; the Uighur ballet Chin-Tomur by K. Kh. Kuzham’iarov, in 1969; and Brusilov-skii’s Kozy-Korpesh and Baian-Slu, in 1971. Other ballets have included The Little Humpbacked Horse by C. Pugni (1939), Raymonda by A. K. Glazunov (1940), Laurencia by A. A. Krein (1942), Giselle by A. Adam (1943), Don Quixote by L. Minkus (1946), Doctor Aibolit by I. V. Morozov (1950), La Esmeralda by Pugni, R. M. Glière, and S. N. Vasilenko (1953), Shurale by F. Z. Iarullin (1956), and The Legend of Love by A. D. Melikov (1963).

Among the republic’s choreographers are Honored Art Workers of the Kazakh SSR D. Abirov and Z. Raibaev. The leading ballet artists include People’s Artist of the Kazakh SSR S. Ku-sherbaev, Honored Artists of the Kazakh SSR A. Bekbosynov, D. Dzhalilov, R. Tazhieva, and S. Tulusanova.

A ballet division was opened at the music school in Alma-Ata in 1934. In 1937 it was made into the School of Choreography.

L. P. SARYNOVA

The elements of dramatic art were contained in age-old folk rituals, games, the performances of folk comics, and the song competition-dialogues of akyns. However, the conditions of the feudal system and the colonialist policies of the tsarist government retarded the development of Kazakh theater. Only after the Revolution of 1905–07 did the first works of national dramaturgy appear. Amateur performances in Kazakh were staged in Orenburg, Omsk, Semipalatinsk, and Tashkent.

The intensive development of the national theater began after the Great October Socialist Revolution. Semiprofessional dramatic groups were of great importance for the development of theatrical art. A. Kashaubaev, I. Baizakov, Zh. Shanin, K. Baizhanov, and Zh. Elebekov, who subsequently became prominent figures in Kazakh art, embarked upon their creative paths in one such troupe, which worked in Semipalatinsk under the name Es-aimak. The first permanent theater group formed in Orenburg in 1922 at the Kazakh Institute of Public Education. Among the actors who worked there were E. Umurzakov, S. Kozhamkulov, and K. U. Badyrov. The first Kazakh theater opened in Kzyl-Orda in 1926; in 1928 it was transferred to Alma-Ata. Masters of folk art and participants in amateur theatricals joined its troupe. Nascent national dramaturgy (the plays of M. O. Auezov, S. Seifullin, B. Mailin, and Zh. Shanin) reflected the struggle for a new life and the emancipation of women; they exposed the seamy side of life in the old aul Simultaneous with the dramatic performances, concerts and evenings of folk art were organized in the newly created theater.

During the 1930’s the assimilation of the Russian theater culture, combined with the development of progressive national traditions, promoted the improvement of acting skill and level of performance. The plays of N. V. Gogol, N. F. Pogodin, and K. A. Trenev were added to the theater’s repertoire. The shows Night Thunder by Auezov (1935) and AmangeVdy by G. Mus-repov (1937) were important works.

In 1932 a school for the training of dramatic actors, singers, and musicians was established in Alma-Ata. A system of raion and kolkhoz and sovkhoz theaters based on amateur groups began to develop intensively. These theaters carried on cultural and educational work in remote settlements. Oblast Kazakh and Russian drama theaters opened in many cities. After 1937 the theaters were reinforced by actors and directors who had received special training in Moscow and Leningrad. The creative work of the playwrights A. Tazhibaev, Sh. Khusainov, and A. Abishev took shape; the life of contemporary Kazakhstan was reflected more broadly in their plays. The plays The Inspector-General by Gogol (1936), Isatai and Makhambet by M. Akinzhanov (1938), Abai by Auezov and L. S. Sobolev and Kozy-Korpesh and Baian-Slu by Musrepov (both 1940), and Comrades by Abishev and Marabai by M. Kaibaldin and Khusainov (both 1941) were important to the development of the national theater.

From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, plays and shows devoted to wartime themes and events were written in Kazakhstan, such as Lightning by Abishev (1941) and Guard of Honor by Auezov and Abishev (1942). The folklore-historical shows Akhan-Sere and Aktokty by Musrepov and Aldar-Kose by Khusainov (both 1942), which linked Kazakh theater to the age-old artistic culture, were prominent in the repertoires of a number of theaters.

The Theater for Children and Young People was established in Alma-Ata in 1944 (its Russian troupe has been in operation since 1945, its Kazakh troupe since 1948). Its productions have included the tales The Golden Bat by Akinzhanov and K. Badyrov (1948) and Aldar-Kose by Khusainov (1953); Ibrai Altynsarin, a historical play by Akinzhanov (1951); and The Radiant Stone (1949) and The Naughty Child (1954) by Khusainov, based on the lives of young people.

Plays on contemporary subjects made up the theatrical repertoire in the second half of the 1940’s and the early 1950’s: The Victors by B. F. Chirskov (1947), Friendship and Love (1947) and A Single Family (1949) by Abishev, The Millionaire by G. Mustafin (1950), The Voice of America by B. A. Lavrenev (1950), The Guelder Rose Grove by A. E. Korneichuk (1951), and Bloom, Steppe! by Tazhibaev (1952). Among the productions of Russian and foreign classics, Talents and Admirers (1949) and The Thunderstorm (1950) by A. N. Ostrovskii and The Miser by Moliere (1952) stood out. Theaters strove to expand their range of genres and themes and sought to create rich performances.

Plays on themes of the history of Kazakhstan, such as Chokan Valikhanov by S. Mukanov (1956) and Maira by Tazhibaev (1957), were staged in the second half of the 1950’s, and shows with a folklore-historical content, such as Enlik and Kebek by Auezov (1957) and Akhan-Sere and Aktokty by Musrepov (1958, under the title The Tragedy of a Poet) were revived. Contemporary themes were further elaborated in One Tree Is Not a Forest (Bloom, Steppe!) by Tazhibaev (1958) and The Wolf Cub in a Cap Trap by K. Mukhamedzhanov (1959). These productions defined a new stage of development in the national theater, associated with the quest for a deeper exposition of the characters of positive heroes and a striving to achieve a more complete reflection of the life of the people and an organic merging of the folk traditions and contemporary Soviet theater. In 1958 the M. O. Auezov Kazakh Theater and the Republic Russian Theater participated in the Ten-day Festival of Kazakh Art and Literature in Moscow.

Notable among the plays of the 1960’s were The Maternal Field after Ch. Aitmatov (1964), Saule (1961) and Snowstorm (1966) by T. Akhtanov, Stronger Than Death by S. Zhunusov (1967), Forgotten by All by N. Khikmet (1967), An Optimistic Tragedy by V. V. Vishnevskii (1967), and Lenin in 1918 by A. Ia. Kapler (1970).

In 1972, 25 theaters were in operation, including the M. O. Auezov Academic Drama Theater, the M. Iu. Lermontov Republic Russian Drama Theater, the Theater for Children and Young People, the Puppet Theater (Russian and Kazakh groups), the Uighur Theater, and the Korean Theater in Alma-Ata and Kazakh theaters in Dzhambul, Kzyl-Orda, Chimkent, Karaganda, Semipalatinsk, Gur’ev, Dzhetysai, and Arkalyk.

Kazakh theaters stage works by playwrights of the fraternal republics: The Prodigal Son by E. Rannet (1959), On the Night of the Lunar Eclipse by M. Karim (1967), Narkes by I. Iumagulov (1968), The Star of Vietnam by I. I. Kupriianov (1968), The Mother of Her Children by A. N. Afinogenov (both in 1971), The Little Shoes by D. Faizi (1972), My Little Poplar in the Red Scarf (1966), and Face to Face, after Aitmatov (1972). Seven-day festivals of the literature and art of Uzbekistan, Tataria, Turkmenistan, the RSFSR, the Ukraine, Armenia, and Tadzhikistan have been held since 1962.

Important contributions to the development of the Kazakh drama theater have been made by People’s Artists of the USSR Sh. K. Aimanov and K. Kuanyshpaev and by People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR R. Koichubaeva, M. G. Nasonov, and Zh. Shanin. Figures in the Kazakh theater (1972) include People’s Artists of the USSR Kh. Bukeeva and S. Maikanova and People’s Artists of the Kazakh SSR K. U. Badyrov, Sh. Dzhan-darbekova, A. Dzholumbetov, N. Zhanturin, K. Karmysov, S. Kozhamkulov, A. Mambetov, I. Nogaibaev, B. Rimova, Sh. Sakiev, Z. Suleimenova, M. Surtubaev, S. Tel’garaev, E. Umurzakov, Z. Sharipova, and D. Shashkina.

REFERENCES

L’vov, N. I. Kazakhskii akademicheskii teatr dramy.Alma-Ata, 1957.
L’vov, N. I. Kazakhskii teatr: Ocherk istorii.Moscow, 1961.
Kanapin, A. K, and L. I. Varshavskiy Iskusstvo Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Kazakhskie oblastnye teatry. Alma-Ata, 1965. [Collection of articles.]
Istoriia sovetskogo dramaticheskogo teatra, vols. 1–6. Moscow, 1966–71.
Kŭndaqbaev, B., and K. Nŭrpeyŭsov. M. Äuezov atïndaghï Qazaqtïng memlekettĭq akademiyälïq, drama teatrïna 40 jïl. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Qŭandïqov, Q. Tŭnghïsh ŭlt teatriï. Alma-Ata, 1969.
N. I. L’vov
Circus. From time immemorial the folk art of Kazakhstan has included people who performed at various festivals—baluan, or athletes (Khadzhimukhan Munaitbasov and Baluan-Sholak), acrobatic clowns (the akyn Shashubai Koshkarbaev), and comic improvisers. A circus under the direction of A. I. Sosin began performing in Vernyi (now Alma-Ata) in 1919. Its repertoire also included pantomimes on revolutionary themes—’The Strug-gle of Labor Against Capital” and “Victims of Poverty.” V. Ferroni’s private circus enterprise (later the Association of Circus Artists and Wrestlers) operated in Semipalatinsk in 1923. The Studio of Music and the Variety Stage, which subsequently became a circus and variety stage studio, was established in Alma-Ata in 1965. Its graduates joined the Kazakh Circus Association, which was organized in 1970. A new circus building opened in Alma-Ata in 1972.
A. IA. SHNEER

Motion pictures were first shown in Kazakhstan in 1910. Before the October Revolution there were 13 motion-picture theaters in Kazakhstan. The first filming was done in 1925, when newsreel photographers from Moscow shot the Fifth Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan. The first documentary film about Kazakhstan, Anniversary of the KASSR, was made the same year. A division of the Vostok-fil’m trust, which published the periodical film journal Poslednie novosti (Latest News) and the essays “Alma-Ata and Its Environs,” “Cooperation in the Aul,” “On Dzhailiau,” and “Kzyl-asker,” was established in Alma-Ata in 1928. The film Turksib (1929, director V. A. Turin), about the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia railroad, was an outstanding work of Soviet documentary cinema.

During the 1920’s and 1930’s, feature films devoted to life in Kazakhstan were made in the country’s central film studios by the directors of those studios, with the participation of Kazakh actors. The films Mutiny (1929), Song of the Steppes (1930), Jute (1932), The Secret of the Karatau (1933), and The Enemy’s Paths (1935) helped launch national films. The film AmangeVdy (1939, director M. Z. Levin; E. Umurzakov played the leading role), which depicted the struggle of the Kazakh toiling people for the establishment of Soviet power, marked the birth of the Kazakh motion picture. A newsreel studio was organized in Alma-Ata in 1934; it produced the weekly film journal Soviet Kazakhstan and topical documentary films.

The Alma-Ata feature film studio, established in October 1941, was merged in 1942 with the evacuated Mosfil’m and Lenfil’m studios under the name Combined Central Film Studio (TsOKS). Young Kazakh cinematographers worked with prominent Soviet film figures—S. M. Eisenstein, V. I. Pudovkin, G. N. Vasil’ev and S. D. Vasil’ev, I. A. Pyr’ev, F. M. Ermler, Iu. Ia. Raizman, G. L. RoshaP, and D. Vertov—which helped to increase the number of national specialists and promoted works on the life of the Kazakh people (The Songs of Abai, 1946, and others).

In 1944, Mosfil’m and Lenfil’m were reevacuated, and the studio that remained in Alma-Ata was merged with the Alma-Ata Newsreel Studio; in 1960 it became the Kazakhfil’m Studio.

Among the historical and historical-revolutionary films made from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s were Dzhambul (1953, directed by E. L. Dzigan, with Sh. K. Aimanov in the role of Dzhambul); Botagoz (1958, directed by E. A. Aron), about the fate of a Kazakh woman who participated in the revolutionary struggle for the establishment of Soviet power in Kazakhstan; His Time Will Come (1958, directed by M. S. Begalin), devoted to the outstanding Kazakh public figure Chokan Valikhanov; We Are From Semirech’e (1959, directed by S. Khodzhikov); Troubled Morning (1966, directed by A. Karsakbaev); Song ofMan-shuk (1970, directed by Begalin), about the Great Patriotic War; and The End of the Hetman (1971, directed by Sh. K. Aimanov), about the Soviet officials of the Cheka. There were films based on folk epics, among them Poem of Love (1954, directed by Aimanov and K. A. GakkeP), Aldar-Kose (1965, directed by Aimanov), and Kyz-Zhibek (1972, directed by S. Khodzhikov).

Films on contemporary themes occupy an important place; among them are The Girl Riding Bareback (1955, directed by P. P. Bogoliubov), We Live Here (1957, directed by Aimanov and M. L. Volodarskii), Our Dear Doctor (1958, directed by Aimanov), If Each of Us … (1962, directed by Khodzhikov), Tale of a Mother (1964, directed by A. Ia. Karpov), They Call Me Kozha (1964, directed by Karsakbaev), and Land of the Fathers (1966, directed by Aimanov). Documentary films include To You, the Front (1942), Reflections About Good Fortune (1956, directed by A. M. Medvedkin), In Our City (1957, directed by O. Abishev), Such a Short Life (1969, directed by Iu. Piskunov), Irtysh-Karaganda (1970, directed by G. Emel’-ianov), Dynasty of Miners (1972, directed by Abishev), and Kurmangazy (1972, directed by S. Narymbetov and M. Uskembaeva). The actor and director Sh. K. Aimanov has played a major role in the Kazakh film industry.

Directors working in the Kazakh film industry include Sh. Beisembaev, K. Abuseitov, and Zh. Baitenov (feature films); G. Novozhilov, T. Duisebaev, A. Nugmanov, M. Dulepo, Ia. Smirnov, E. Faik, O. Zekki, I. Vereshchagin, I. Chik-noverov, A. Kulakov, and L. Mukhamedgalieva (documentaries); and A. Khaidarov (animated cartoons). Actors include N. Zhanturin, K. Kozhabekov, and A. Umurzakova. Among prominent cameramen are M. Aranyshev, A. Ashrapov, F. Ab-saliamov, M. Berkovich, M. Duganov, M. Dodonov, and M. Sagimbaev. The Cinematographers’ Union of Kazakhstan was organized in 1958. In 1972 there were 10, 700 motion-picture projection units in the republic.

REFERENCES

Siranov, K. Kazakhskoe kinoiskusstvo.Alma-Ata, 1958.
Kanapin, A. K, and L. I. Varshavskii. Iskusstvo Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1958.
Siranov, K. Kinoiskusstvo Sovetskogo Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata, 1966.
Fedulin, A. Kino v Kazakhstane. Alma-Ata, 1967.

K. SIRANOV