Frank Billings Kellogg

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Kellogg, Frank Billings,

1856–1937, American lawyer, U.S. senator (1917–23), and cabinet member, b. Potsdam, N.Y. As a child, he moved to Olmstead co., Minn. He later studied law and held several municipal posts. He entered private law practice in St. Paul, Minn., where he became an outstanding corporation lawyer and gained stature in the Republican party. Appointed (1904) special counsel to the U.S. attorney general, Kellogg played an important role in antitrust prosecution, particularly in the dissolution of the General Paper and the Standard Oil companies. As special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission, he was active in the investigation of the railroads controlled by Edward H. Harriman. Elected U.S. senator, he was one of the few Republicans who supported the League of Nations, although he believed minor changes were needed to permit U.S. entry. After serving (1924–25) as ambassador to Great Britain, he succeeded (1925) Charles E. Hughes as secretary of state. He bettered relations with Mexico and helped to settle the Tacna-Arica ControversyTacna-Arica Controversy
, 1883–1929, dispute between Chile and Peru. It arose from provisions of the Treaty of Ancón (1883), which ended the War of the Pacific (see Pacific, War of the).
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 between Chile and Peru. Largely for his successful promotion of the Kellogg-Briand PactKellogg-Briand Pact
, agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928, condemning "recourse to war for the solution of international controversies." It is more properly known as the Pact of Paris. In June, 1927, Aristide Briand, foreign minister of France, proposed to the U.S.
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, he was awarded the 1929 Nobel Peace Prize. He resigned his cabinet post in 1929 and afterward served (1930–35) as a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice. He established a foundation for the study of international relations at Carleton College in Minnesota.

Bibliography

See biography by D. Bryn-Jones (1937); L. E. Ellis, Frank B. Kellogg and American Foreign Relations, 1925–1929 (1961).

Kellogg, Frank Billings

 

Born Dec. 2, 1856, in Potsdam, N.Y.; died Dec. 21, 1937, in St. Paul, Minn. US statesman; diplomat.

Kellogg was educated as a lawyer. He was a member of the Republican Party. In 1916–23 he was a senator, in 1924 ambassador of the USA to Great Britain, and in 1925–29 secretary of state. He opposed giving diplomatic recognition to the USSR and was one of the initiators of the Pact of Paris of 1928 [Kellogg-Briand Pact], which he hoped to use as a screen for the creation of an anti-Soviet bloc.