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(khär`kəf), Rus. Kharkov, city (1990 est. pop. 1,600,000), capital of Kharkiv region, E Ukraine, at the confluence of the Kharkiv, Lopan, and Udy rivers in the upper Donets valley. Ukraine's second largest city, Kharkiv is also one of the country's main rail junctions and economic and cultural centers. Proximity to the iron mines of Kryvyy RihKryvyy Rih
, Rus. Krivoy Rog, city (1989 pop. 713,000), SE Ukraine, at the confluence of the Inhulets and Saksagan rivers. It is a rail junction, an industrial center, and a metallurgical and coking center of one of the world's richest iron-mining regions.
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 and the coal of the Donets BasinDonets Basin
, abbreviated as Donbas
, industrial region (c.10,000 sq mi/25,900 sq km), E Ukraine and SW European Russia, N of the Sea of Azov and W of the Donets River.
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 has provided the basis for engineering industries that produce a wide variety of other heavy metal items, including tractors, locomotives, aircraft, and turbines. Kharkiv's industries also include food and tobacco processing, printing, and the manufacture of chemicals.

Founded in 1656 as a military strongpoint to defend Moscow's southern border, it became an important frontier headquarters of the Ukrainian Cossacks. They kept the city loyal to the czar during the Cossack uprisings of the late 17th cent., and, as a result, Kharkiv received more autonomy than most other Ukrainian cities. Developing as an intellectual and commercial center, Kharkiv became the site of large annual trade fairs, which were held from the second half of the 18th cent. until the Russian Revolution. Russia's annexation of the Crimea in 1783 and colonization of the steppes further stimulated Kharkiv's economic growth. The coal and metallurgical industries developed after the 1860s, and railroads were built in the late 19th cent. Kharkiv also became an important center of the 19th-century Ukrainian national and literary movements. The city became the capital of Ukraine in 1919 but was superseded by Kiev in 1934.

Kharkiv's landmarks include the cathedral of the Protectoress (1686), the cathedral of the Assumption (1771), and a bell tower that was built to celebrate Napoleon's defeat in 1812. The university dates from 1805, and there are numerous scientific research institutes. Heavy fighting raged in Kharkiv during World War II. The city was rebuilt with large avenues and many apartment blocks. In 2014 the city and its region largely escaped the pro-Russian separatist rebellion that occurred in the neighboring Donetsk and Luhansk regions.

References in periodicals archive ?
All the hostages in Kharkiv have been released and the attacker arrested.
Flights between Kharkiv and Moscow were banned last May, too, and between Dnipropetrovsk and Moscow, in December.
Kernes' friend and former Kharkiv governor, Mykhailo Dobkin, told journalists the attackers had aimed at Kernes' heart and wanted to kill him to destabilize the city
The striker calmly converted from 12 yards to silence a packed house at the Metalist Stadium in Kharkiv.
The French midfielder, who has been sidelined since December by a hamstring injury, is back in training, but Pardew has always had Sunday's Barclays Premier League clash with Southampton, rather than the second leg of the Magpies' European tie with Metalist Kharkiv, in mind.
The Senegalese striker had a 23rd-minute effort ruled out for offside and then another 16 minutes from time to leave the Magpies facing a stern test in Kharkiv next Thursday.
I suppose it'll take Metalist a while to get used to playing in the -1C of the north east, especially when the temperature back in Kharkiv is a dramatically different .
45pm Wroclaw Tuesday June 12 Greece v Czech Rep 5pm Wroclaw Holland Germany Denmark Portugal FIXTURES Saturday June 9 Holland v Denmark 5pm Kharkiv Wednesday June 13 Holland v Germany 7.
Europa League Quarter-final draw: AZ v Valencia, Schalke 04 v Athletic Bilbao, Sporting v FC Metalist Kharkiv, Atletico Madrid v Hannover 96 Semi-final draw: Atletico Madrid/Hannover 96 v AZ/Valencia, Sporting/FC Metalist Kharkiv v Schalke 04/Athletic Bilbao.
Sharjah Budget carrier Air Arabia yesterday announced that it will shortly introduce direct services to two new destinations in Ukraine -- Kharkiv on October 7 and Donetsk on October 12.
Summary: SHARJAH -- Air Arabia, the first and largest low-cost carrier (LCC) in the Middle East and North Africa, announced on Monday that it will shortly introduce direct service to two new destinations in Ukraine, expanding its presence to three major cities in that country, including Kiev, Kharkiv and Donestsk; reaching 67 across its global network.