Khazars

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Khazars

(khä`zärz), ancient Turkic people who appeared in TranscaucasiaTranscaucasia
, transitional region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. It comprises the Republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
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 in the 2d cent. A.D. and subsequently settled in the lower Volga region. They emerged as a force in the 7th cent. and rose to great power. The Khazar empire extended (8th–10th cent.) from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Urals and as far westward as Kiev. Itil, the Khazar capital in the Volga delta, was a great commercial center. The Khazars conquered the Volga Bulgars and the Crimea, levied tribute from the eastern Slavs, and warred with the Arabs, Persians, and Armenians. Religious tolerance was complete in the Khazar empire, which reached a relatively high degree of civilization. In the 8th cent. the Khazar nobility embraced Judaism, and Cyril and MethodiusCyril and Methodius, Saints
, d. 869 and 884, respectively, Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature. Their history and influence are obscured by conflicting legends.
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 made some Christian converts among them in the 9th cent. In the 10th cent. the Khazars entered into friendly relations with the Byzantine EmpireByzantine Empire,
successor state to the Roman Empire (see under Rome), also called Eastern Empire and East Roman Empire. It was named after Byzantium, which Emperor Constantine I rebuilt (A.D. 330) as Constantinople and made the capital of the entire Roman Empire.
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, which attempted to use them in the struggle against the Arabs. The Khazar empire fell when SviatoslavSviatoslav
or Svyatoslav
, d. 972, duke of Kiev (945–72), son of Igor and of St. Olga. His mother acted as regent for him until c.962, when he came of age.
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, duke of Kiev, defeated its army in 965. The Khazars (or Chazars) are believed by some to have been the ancestors of many East European Jews.

Khazars

 

a nomadic Turkic-speaking people who appeared in Eastern Europe in the fourth century, after the invasion of the Huns. In the 560’s, the Khazars were subjugated by the Turkic Kaganate. The Khazar Kaganate was formed in the mid-seventh century; after it fell, the Khazars intermingled with other nomadic Turkic peoples.

REFERENCE

Artamonov, M. I. Istoriia khazar. Leningrad, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
We expect highly active participation," Armen Khazarian, an official at one polling station in Yerevan, said.
However, Khazarian could not find any evidence demonstrating that the Ottoman government and the Ottoman officials deported to Malta either sanctioned or encouraged the killings of the Armenians.
14) Given the formative and centuries-long Rus' experience with trying to form and maintain a polity at the very edge of the Khazarian Empire, Prince Sviatoslav's victory over the Khazars at their own fortress of Sarkel on the Don River in 965 must have been experienced as a major Rus' breakthrough.
Subsequently, the East Slavic polity with its capital at Kyiv (Kiev) chose Eastern Orthodox Christianity over Khazarian Judaism and other religious options available at the time.
The Khazarian hypothesis was not utterly implausible, given the state of knowledge at the rime, but genetic researches have since exploded it.
22) Norman Golb and Omeljan Pritsak, Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Corndl University Press, 1982).
upon some objective connections that may have remained hidden, ignored or unacceptable for a time, but which the procedure of the Khazarian contest helps re-emerge.
Thus, given as a special narrative whole, the Khazarian history in this lexicon-novel has two relevant, interconnected functions.
Roxanne Khazarian has been named to the position of senior vice president, general counsel and secretary.
Early Byzantine, Carolingian, Polish, and Khazarian examples are among the topics.
A parallel of this symbolic syncretism can be found on Crimean-Jewish tombstones, considered by some scholars to be of Khazarian origin.
Though it was named the festival's Best International Video, Kalachnikov unsuccessfully straddles the line between personal film and documentary as it chronicles the "dislocation" of its author, Philippe Khazarian, and that of his people after the 1915 Armenian genocide.