Kickapoo


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Kickapoo

(kĭk`əpo͞o), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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) and who in the late 17th cent. occupied SW Wisconsin. They were closely related to the Sac and FoxSac and Fox,
closely related Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Sac and Fox culture was of the Eastern Woodlands area with some Plains-area traits (see under Natives, North American).
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. The culture of the Kickapoo was essentially that of the Eastern Woodlands area, but they also hunted buffalo, one of the few traits that the Kickapoo adopted from their neighbors in the Plains area. After the allied Kickapoo, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Sac and Fox tribes massacred (c.1769) the IllinoisIllinois
, confederation of Native North Americans, comprising the Cahokia, the Kaskaskia, the Michigamea, the Moingwena, the Peoria, and the Tamaroa tribes. They belong to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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, they partitioned the Illinois territory. The Kickapoo, numbering about 3,000, moved south to central Illinois. Later they split in two; the Vermilion group settled on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Wabash, and the Prairie group on the Sangamon River. The Kickapoo, a power in the region, sided with the British in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812, when they aided the Shawnee chief Tecumseh. By the Treaty of Edwardsville (1819) the Kickapoo ceded all their lands in Illinois to the United States. They were prevented from entering Missouri, which had been set aside for them, because that region was occupied by the hostile Osage. Kanakuk, a prophet, exhorted the Kickapoo to remain where they were, promising that if they avoided liquor and infractions of the white man's law, they would inherit a land of plenty. His pleas were futile, and the Kickapoo, after aiding the Sac and Fox in the Black Hawk War, were forced to leave Illinois. The Kickapoo moved first to Missouri and then to Kansas. A large group, dissatisfied with conditions on the reservation, went (c.1852) first to Texas and then to Mexico, where they became known as the Mexican Kickapoo. After the U.S. Civil War, the Mexican Kickapoo proved so constant an annoyance to border settlements that the United States made efforts to induce them to return. The negotiations were successful, and a number returned to settle (1873–74) on reservations in Texas and Oklahoma. The remaining Mexican Kickapoo are settled on a reservation in Chihuahua, Mexico. There is also a Kickapoo reservation in Kansas. In 1990 there were 3,500 Kickapoo in the United States.

Bibliography

See R. E. Ritzenthaler, The Mexican Kickapoo Indians (1956, repr. 1970); A. M. Gibson, The Kickapoos (1963).

References in periodicals archive ?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently awarded the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma a performance partnership grant of $282,357 for administering a variety of pollution-control programs.
We conducted an aquatic turtle survey at Kickapoo State Park and the Middle Fork State Fish and Wildlife Area (MFSFWA) located in Vermilion Co.
One of the founders of the Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company, Texas JackBigelow, claimed to have been nursed back to health, from a deadly prairie fever, by a medicine prepared by the Native family that found him.
Neither Berkhardt nor officials with the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas returned calls seeking comment.
2) Middle Illinois River tributaries are referred to as "Little Vermilion River, Big Bureau, and Kickapoo Creek Drainages" in Cummings and Mayer (1997).
Two small groups have also integrated with the Menominee in Wisconsin and Kickapoo in Kansas.
See Joseph Herring, "Kenekuk, the Kickapoo Prophet: Acculturation without Assimilation" in Trazfer 1986:57-69; Hirschfelder and Molin 1992:145.
The tract in Vermilion County creates a physical and biological linkage between the Kickapoo State Recreation Area, the Kennekuk Cove County Park and the Middle Fork Fish and Wildlife Area.
the concession operation at kickapoo state recreation area will be authorized to rent, sell, serve or dispense food, confections, hot and cold nonalcoholic beverages, souvenirs, canoe, kayak, inner tube and boat rental, boating equipment, fishing and hunting licenses, marine, fishing, picnic and camping supplies and to install vending machines around the exterior of the concession building.
Kickapoo, Suite 2, Lincoln, IL 62656; 217/735-4373, FAX: 217/732-2041 Web site: www.
Among the showstealers are an Iroquois roll call cane, Kickapoo prayer stick, and nearly explosive Seminole shoulder bag.
The remainder of the net unrealized gains on notes receivable consisted of unrealized gains related to the 2006 settlement with the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas ("Kickapoo Tribe") in the amount of approximately $6.