Kilby, Jack St. Clair

Kilby, Jack St. Clair,

1923–2005, American electrical engineer, b. Jefferson City, Mo., B.S. Univ. of Illinois, 1947, M.S. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1950. In 1958, Kilby began working for Texas Instruments (TI), which he had joined in order to devote himself to developing miniaturized electronic components. In Sept., 1958, he demonstrated the first monolithic integrated circuitintegrated circuit
(IC), electronic circuit built on a semiconductor substrate, usually one of single-crystal silicon. The circuit, often called a chip, is packaged in a hermetically sealed case or a nonhermetic plastic capsule, with leads extending from it for input, output,
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, or microchip, an invention that led to the greatly reduced cost and size of electronic devices, including the computer, and led to development of the modern information technology industry. (Several months later the achievement was independently duplicated at Fairchild Semiconductor by Robert N. NoyceNoyce, Robert Norton
, 1927–90, American engineer, inventor, and entrepeneur, b. Burlington, Iowa.; grad. Grinnell College (B.A., 1949), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1953).
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.) Kilby later shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physics (with Zhores I. AlferovAlferov, Zhores Ivanovich,
1930–, Russian physicist, Ph.D. V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute, 1952. He joined the research staff of the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was promoted to director in 1987.
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 and Herbert KroemerKroemer, Herbert,
1928–, German physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Göttingen, 1952. Kroemer was a researcher at RCA Laboratories in Princeton, N.J. (1954–57), and at Varian Associates in Palo Alto, Calif. (1959–66). In 1968 he joined the faculty at the Univ.
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) for his pioneering work on the integrated circuit. He subsequently helped develop the hand-held electronic calculator and the thermal printer before he took (1970) an extended leave from TI. From 1978 to 1984 he was an electrical engineering professor at Texas A&M Univ.; he retired from TI in 1983.