# kilogram

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## kilogram,

abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric systemmetric system,
system of weights and measures planned in France and adopted there in 1799; it has since been adopted by most of the technologically developed countries of the world.
, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris. Copies of this standard are deposited at bureaus of standards throughout the world, and other units of mass are defined in terms of it. When the metric system was originally devised, the kilogram was defined so that 1,000 cubic centimeters (1 cubic decimeter) of pure water has a mass of exactly 1 kilogram.

## kilogram

(kil -ŏ-gram) Symbol: kg. The SI unit of mass. It is defined as the mass of a prototype platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres, France. See also solar mass.

## Kilogram

a unit of mass; one of the seven basic units of the International System of Units (SI). It is equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Its abbreviated designations are as follows: Russian, kg; international, kg.

In the 18th century, when the metric unit system was first introduced, a kilogram was defined as the mass of 1 cubic decimeter (dm3) of water at 4°C (the temperature of highest density). However, the mass of the prototype kilogram (a cylindrical platinum weight made in 1799) was found to be about 0.028 g greater than the mass of 1 dm3 of water. In 1889 the currently existing definition of a kilogram was accepted, and a weight designated by the symbol Κ (German capital K) was approved as the International Prototype Kilogram. It is made from a platinum-iridium alloy (10 percent Ir) and has the shape of a cylinder 39 mm in diameter and 39 mm high. Of the 40 copies of this prototype that were made, two (nos. 12 and 26) were turned over to Russia. Standard no. 12 is accepted in the USSR as the primary government standard of mass; standard no. 26 is a copy of the primary standard.

For a long time no distinction was made between the mass and weight of bodies. Thus, a kilogram served as a unit not only of mass but also of weight (the force of gravity). Differentiation between units of mass and weight was established at the Third General Conference of Weights amd Measures (1901). A decision of the conference emphasized that the weight of a body is equal to the product of its mass and free-fall acceleration and introduced the concept of normal weight and normal gravitational acceleration (980.665 cm/sec2). A separate unit of force and weight—the kilogram-force—was established at that time. The same principle is preserved in the International System of Units, where the newton has been adopted as the unit for measurements of force.

Designations for multiples and fractions of a kilogram are formed by adding a prefix to the designation “gram,” such as megagram (Mg) and milligram (mg). Although a kilogram is not one of the units that can be defined by invariable natural constants (that is, the prototype standard for a kilogram is not reproducible), its accuracy satisfies the requirements of modern science and engineering (the relative error in comparisons with the prototype does not exceed 2 X 10-9).

### REFERENCE

Smirnova, N. A. Edinitsy izmerenii massy i vesa ν Mezhdunarodnoi sisteme edinits. Moscow, 1966.

K. P. SHIROKOV

## kilogram

[′kil·ə‚gram]
(mechanics)
The unit of mass in the meter-kilogram-second system, equal to the mass of the international prototype kilogram stored at Sèvres, France. Abbreviated kg.

## kilogram

The International Standard unit for mass; equals 1000 grams.

## kilogram

1. one thousand grams
2. the basic SI unit of mass, equal to the mass of the international prototype held by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. One kilogram is equivalent to 2.204 62 pounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
The prices of another most desired commodity of the holy month, sugar, have also gone up during the last one week and it is currently being sold at Rs 72 to Rs 75 per kilogramme in the retail markets, while it was available to buyers at Rs 65 to Rs 68 per kilogramme in the retail markets.
Retail rates of Dal Mash also went up during the last fortnight as the commodity is currently available to buyers at Rs 190 per kilogramme, which is far higher compared to old rates of Rs 165 to Rs 170 per kilogramme.
Wholesale rates of white Chick peas, which is usually in high demand during Ramzan, also went up to the level of Rs 90 per kilogramme, two weeks ago they were available to consumers some at Rs 75 to Rs 80 per kilogramme.
Price of Black peas, which is also one of the favourite items of Ramazan, surged to Rs 55 per kilogramme to Rs 58 per kilogramme in the wholesale markets, these were earlier sold at Rs 50 to Rs 52 per kilogramme.
Similarly, prices of live chicken bird currently stand at Rs 115 to 120 per kilogramme, compared to old price of Rs 105 to 108 per kilogramme.
The price ranges from Rs 80 to Rs 100 per kilogramme.
Retail prices of Dal Masur declined to Rs 98 per kilogramme, which is lower compared to the old prices of Rs 100 to Rs 103 per kilogramme.
The price of Black peas (kala channa) remained unchanged as it is currently available at Rs 50 to Rs 52 in the retail markets, similarly, prices of quality white pea (kabli channa) continue to hover around Rs 80 to Rs 85 per kilogramme in the retail markets.
However, rates of Dal Moong, a locally produced commodity surged to record level of Rs 150 per kilogramme compared to old rates of Rs 125 to Rs 130 per kilogramme, manifesting massive surge in its rates during the last one month.
Black peas (kala channa) price remained unchanged and is currently available at Rs 50 to Rs 52 in the retail markets, similarly, rates of quality white pea (kabli channa) continue to hover around Rs 80 to Rs 85 per kilogramme in the retail markets.
Dal Mash rates during the last one-month surged sharply in the retail markets and is currently available to buyers at Rs 145 to Rs 150 per kilogramme in the retail markets of Karachi.
Vegetables: Fine quality onion continues to fetch around Rs 20 to Rs 22 per kilogramme in the wholesale markets.

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