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, formerly Kirovabad
, city (1989 pop. 278,000), in NW Azerbaijan, on the Ganja River. The largest Azerbaijani industrial center after Bakı, Ganja produces cotton and silk textiles, building materials, carpets, cottonseed oil, agricultural implements, copper
..... Click the link for more information. , Azerbaijan.
(prior to 1804 and from 1918 to 1935, Gandzha; from 1804 to 1918, Elizavetpol’; and in 1935 renamed in honor of S. M. Kirov), a city in the Azerbaijan SSR, situated at the northeastern foot of the Lesser Caucasus on the Giandzhachai River of the Kura basin. It has a railroad station on the Baku-Tbilisi line and is a highway junction. Population, 195,000 (1972; 33,600 in 1897, 99,000 in 1939, 136,000 in 1959).
Founded in the fifth century, the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 1138 and rebuilt on a new site. In the 12th and 13th centuries it was a major commercial and handicraft town, producing chiefly textiles, and the cultural center of Azerbaijan. Many times it was captured and destroyed by the Persians, Turks, and Mongols. In the 18th century it was the capital of the Gandzha Khanate. In January 1804 it was annexed by Russia, becoming the capital of Elizavetpol’ Province in 1868. In 1883 it was connected by rail with Baku, Tbilisi, and Batumi.
The Elizavetpol’ Social Democratic Organization was formed in the early 20th century, and during the Revolution of 1905–07 the city was one of the revolutionary centers in Azerbaijan. Among those active in revolutionary work in the city were M. A. Azizbekov, B. M. Knuniants, M. G. Melikian, N. N. Narimanov, A. K. Chumak, and S. G. Shaumian. Between 1917 and 1920 the city was controlled by counterrevolutionary parties and foreign interventionists; the first Musavat government of Azerbaijan was transferred here from Tiflis in 1918. On May 1, 1920, units of the 11th Red Army entered the city. The counter-revolutionary rebellion of Musavatists, beks, and khans that broke out on the night of May 25 was suppressed on May 31. The city is the birthplace of the Azerbaijan poet and thinker Nizami Ganjevi and the poet Mekhseti Khanum.
A. A. GALUSTIAN
During the years of socialist construction, Kirovabad has become, after Baku, the second most important industrial and cultural center of the Azerbaijan SSR. Light industry, represented by textile and carpet combines and cotton gins, is well developed, as is the food industry, including a vegetable-oil combine, a meat-packing plant, a mill, and a dairy. Heavy industry is also expanding. An aluminum industry has arisen, based on the Zaglik alunite deposits. Other important industries are the production of instruments and building materials, such as binding agents, reinforced-concrete components, and large panels used in prefabricated housing construction. There are also mechanical, vehicle-repair, and porcelain plants and a furniture factory.
The remains of fortress walls, towers, and bridges dating from the 12th and early 13th centuries have been discovered on the site of Old Gandzha (within present-day Kirovabad). To the northeast of Old Gandzha is the temple complex of Gei-Imam (or Imamzade), a mausoleum dating from the 14th to 17th centuries, around which mosques and tombs were built in the 17th century. The Dzhuma Mosque, built in 1606 by the architect Bakhaaddin, and domed houses from the 17th and 18th centuries have also been preserved. Modern Kirovabad is a city of numerous public and large residential buildings, built on straightened and widened streets and squares in the center and in the new districts. Among important buildings are the palace of Pioneers (1948; architect, R. Boiadzhian), the Pedagogical Institute (1940; architects S. Dadashev and M. Useinov), the administrative building on Lenin Square (1961; architects, E. Ismailov and F. Leont’eva), and the department store (1967). Also noteworthy are the Nizami monument, executed in 1946 by the sculptor F. Abdurakhmanov and the architects S. Dadashev and M. Useinov, and Nizami’s mausoleum, built in 1947 by the architects A. Sarkisov and I. Vakhutin.
Kirovabad has agricultural and pedagogical institutes and an affiliate of the Azerbaijan Polytechnic Institute. There are also light-industry, polytechnic, construction, and agricultural technicums and medical, pedagogical, and music schools. The city also has a museum of local lore, a drama theater, and a television center.
REFERENCESBretanitskii, L., and A. Salamzade. Kirovabad. Moscow, 1960.
Galustian, A. A. Iz istorii bor’by trudiashchikhsia Giandzhinskoi (Elizavetpol’skoi) gubernii Azerbaidzhana za Sovetskuiu vlast’ (1917–1920 gg.). Baku, 1963.
Osmanly, O. M. Razvitie promyshlennosti Kirovabada za gody Sovetskoi vlasti. Baku, 1961.