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a genus of plants of the family Dipsacaceae. The plants are perennial, annual, or, most often, biennial herbs with opposite pinnatipartite or, less frequently, entire leaves. The tiny flowers (the marginal flowers are larger) are gathered in large, flattened hemispherical calathide heads or anthodia with multifoliate spathes. The outer calyx is tubular, and the interior, patelliform one has denticles. The tubular, irregular corolla has four blades. There are four stamens; the fruit is a seed with a membrane margin.

There are approximately 50 species ofKnautia in the temperate belt of Europe, western Asia, and North Africa, but they are found mainly in the Mediterranean region. There are six species in the USSR, primarily in the Caucasus. Field scabious (K. arvensis), a perennial honey-bearing plant with lilac-colored flowers, grows in waterless valley meadows, at forest edges, in shrub thickets, and sometimes in pasture lands and as a weed among agricultural crops. K. magnifica and other species are grown as ornamentals.

T. V. EGOROVA [13-595-]

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Knautia macedonica, above and Aster 'Little Carlow' plant breeders, especially in Germany QWE'D love to grow lilies in pots.
Ornamental grasses are planted skilfully with late summer stunners Echinacea Purpurea Rubinstern, Knautia Macedonica and Sanguisorba Officinalis Red Thunder creating a haze-like mist of autumn splendour.
rigida, Avena sterilis, Clinopodium nepeta, Crepis neglecta, Dasypyrum villosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Hordeum bulbosum, Knautia integrifolia, Lagurus ovatus, Tyrimnus leucographus, Vicia villosa, Vulpia ligustica.
The vegetation is dominated by common species of hayfields such as Arrhenaterum elatius, Dactylis polygama, Achillea millefolium, Daucus carota, Knautia arvensis, Leucanthemum vulgare, and Trifolium pratense, and interspersed with patches of some weeds of pastures such as Cirsium arvense, Agrimonia eupatoria, etc.
Does seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis?
Avoid sterile hybrids, which won't produce seeds or fruit, but provide some colour and nutritious seeds for the birds by planting coneflowers, teasels and knautia macedonica.
2003) works--Zabelia, Knautia, Succisa, Belonanthus, Phyllactis and Stangea--were allowed to "float" free inside the Dipsacales clade by changing their scores to "?