Kolokol

Kolokol

 

the first Russian revolutionary newspaper, published abroad in Russian and French by A. I. Herzen and N. P. Ogarev (from 1857 to 1865 in London and from 1865 to 1867 in Geneva). Kolokol’s circulation reached 2,500. At first Kolokol was viewed by its publishers as “supplementary sheets” to Poliarnaia zvezda. However, it rather quickly assumed leadership over “the general democratic uncensored press” (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25, p. 93). The newspapers Pod sud (1859–62) and Obshchee veche (1862–64) were put out as supplements to Kolokol.

At first, Kolokol’s program included democratic demands: the liberation of the peasants with land and the abolition of censorship and corporal punishments. It was based on a theory of Russian peasant socialism that had been elaborated by Herzen. At the same time liberal illusions were expressed in Kolokolbetween 1858 and 1861. In addition to articles by Herzen and Ogarev, Kolokol carried diverse articles about the condition of the people and about the social struggle in Russia, as well as information about the authorities’ abuse of power and secret plans.

During the revolutionary situation of 1859–61 the amount of information received by Kolokol from Russia increased significantly, reaching several hundred pieces of correspondence a month. Among the newspaper’s correspondents and disseminators were N. A. Dobroliubov, N. A. Serno-Solov’evich, and M. L. Mikhailov, Decembrists who had returned from exile, and later, members of the “young emigration,” including N. I. Utin, L. M. Mechnikov, and M. K. Elpidin. Kolokol also received information and articles from liberal figures and writers such as I. S. Aksakov, Iu. F. Samarin, A. I. Koshelev, and I. S. Turgenev. After the Peasant Reform of 1861, Kolokol resolutely took the side of revolutionary democracy against liberalism. The newspaper carried the texts of proclamations and other documents of the Russian revolutionary underground, as well as articles by Herzen and Ogarev sharply condemning the reform and exposing its inadequacy.

Contact with the Kolokol office contributed to the consolidation of the Russian underground and the formation of the Land and Freedom organization. Kolokol’s break with the liberals after the reform of 1861 became final when Herzen and Ogarev actively supported the Polish Uprising of 1863–64. To strengthen their ties with the “young emigration,” most of whom were in Switzerland, Kolokol’s publishers moved the newspaper from London to Geneva in 1865, but in 1867 unfavorable condi-tons led them to cease publication. However, from 1867 to 1869 a number of supplement were published: Kolokol: Pribavochnyi list k pervomu desiatiletiiu, six issues of Kolokol: Russkoe pribavlenie, and Supplément du Kolokol. In 1870, Ogarev and S. G. Nechaev published an additional six issues of Kolokol, but their newspaper differed significantly from Herzen’s.

PUBLICATIONS

Kolokol: Gazeta A. I. Gertsena i N. P. Ogareva. Free Russian Printing House, London and Geneva, 1857–67.
Faksimil’noe izd., nos. 1–10, vol. 11. (Index.) Moscow, 1962–64.

REFERENCES

Eidel’man, N. Ia. Gertsenovskii “Kolokol. “ Moscow, 1963.
Chernykh, V. A. “K voprosu o tirazhakh londonskikh izdanii Gertsena i Ogareva.” Arkheograficheskii ezhegodnik za 1969 g. Moscow, 1971. Pages 123–31.

N. IA. EIDEL’MAN


Kolokol

 

a volcano on the island of Urup (Kuril Islands, USSR). Elevation, 1,328 m.

Kolokol was formed in the postglacial period above a base of older lava flows. Its name (Russian for “bell”) reflects the regularity of its cone, with a narrow plateaulike top on the site of a collapsed crater. There are thickets of alder, Japanese stone pine, and Kuril bamboo and some grassy areas on the slopes. There are hot mineral springs at the foot.

References in periodicals archive ?
Whether wood, cast iron, crystal, copper, porcelain, pewter, silver, brass or bronze, bells-in various shapes with and without clappers-range from small, tuned hand bells to the 74-ton bell at the Chion-In Temple in Japan, which requires 17 monks to ring it properly and the Czar Kolokol, a huge Russian bell made in the 1700s.
Russkii kolokol // Literaturnaya entsiklopediya russkogo zarubezh'ya: 1918-1940.
In the late 1860s, he was a correspondent for Herzen's journal Kolokol, where he caustically commented on the generals' ineptitude in Turkestan, criticizing the tsarist expansion's "lack of method," as opposed to the "conscious conquests" of a colonial policy; capable of generating "authentic awareness of our strengths and our powers.
He is represented by Maarek What they say Henry Candy, trainer of Kolokol "He's very well, although he is rather high in the handicap.
In 1863, the Russian democratic E[umlaut]migrE[umlaut] thinker Alexander Herzen, commenting on the brutal crushing of the Polish uprising by the Tsarist army, wrote in his publication Kolokol that acceptance of violence on the streets of Warsaw meant the acceptance of violence on the streets of St Petersburg.
In 2005 Volgograd's Voroshilovskiy District Prosecutor's Office decided not to pursue a criminalcase against the editor of the newspaper Kolokol, accused of inciting ethnic hatred through a series of anti-Semitic articles.
As Herzen's Kolokol (The Bell) had worked as a kind of government opposition, so too, O'Faolain hoped, his own magazine might stir things up politically and keep the new Ireland informed of the inconsistencies and injustices of the de Valera-led government through the 1940s.
To many Russians, Britain offered a symbol of freedom and democracy, and some revolutionaries escaped to Britain: the first issue of the Russian revolutionary paper Kolokol ('The Bell') founded by Alexander Gertsen was printed in London in 1857.
The diving bell - known as a Kolokol - was sent down to the sub's tomb 500ft below the Barents Sea last night two hours after a first rescue attempt was abandoned because of storms.
The Kolokol diving bell was to be attached to one of the sub's escape hatches where the trapped submariners would climb inside
In general, his journalism, his work for the paper Kolokol, overshadows Herzen's marvelous writing.
Interessant ist ihr Hinweis auf die vorliegende russische Ubersetzung Potonuvsij kolokol.