(Red Virgin Soil), the first Soviet “thick” literary and scholarly public-affairs journal, published in Moscow from 1921 to 1942. Its first editor in chief was A. K. Voronskii (until 1927). In the 1920’s the magazine was a major literary center, attracting many talented writers and critics. The magazine published prose by M. Gorky, M. M. Prishvin, A. P. Platonov, I. E. Babel’, V. V. Ivanov, A. N. Tolstoi, L. M. Leonov, V. P. Kataev, A. P. Gaidar, A. N. Afinogenov, and A. S. Makarenko; poetry by S. A. Esenin, V. V. Mayakovsky, E. G. Bagritskii, and N. N. Aseev; and articles and reviews by A. V. Lunacharskii, A. K. Voronskii, D. A. Gorbov, and A. Z. Lezhnev. In the 1930’s A. A. Fadeev and V. V. Ermilov were members of the editorial board.