(“ancient style” or “ancient literature”), archaic Chinese calligraphy that arose in the third century B.C., as well as a series of literary works, written in ancient Chinese (seventh century B.C. to the first century A.D.). The better known include the historical chronicle Tso-chuan by Tso Ch’iu-ming; the philosophical treatises Lun yü, ascribed to Confucius; Meng-tzu by Meng K’o; and the works of Chuang-tzu and Lao-tzu. The term ku wen is also used to describe the style of some later authors who sought to imitate the ancient models, like Han Yü, Liu Tsung-yüan, Li Aou, and Huangfu Ch’i.
REFERENCESVasil’ev, V. P. Ocherk istorii kitaiskoi literatury. St. Petersburg, 1880.
Chungkuo wenhsüeh shih, vols. 1–4. Peking, 1959.
Margouliès, G. Le Kou-wen Chinois. Paris, 1926.
M. I. UL’MAN