Kublai Khan


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Kublai Khan

(ko͞o`blī kän), 1215–94, Mongol emperor, founder of the Yüan dynasty of China. From 1251 to 1259 he led military campaigns in S China. He succeeded (1260) his brother Mongke (Mangu) as khan of the empire that their grandfather Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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 had founded. The empire reached its greatest territorial extent with Kublai's final defeat (1279) of the Sung dynasty of China; however, his campaigns against Japan (see kamikazekamikaze
[Jap.,=divine wind], the typhoon that destroyed Kublai Khan's fleet, foiling his invasion of Japan in 1281. In World War II the term was used for a Japanese suicide air force composed of fliers who crashed their bomb-laden planes into their targets, usually ships.
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), Myanmar, Vietnam, and Indonesia failed. Kublai's rule as the overlord of the Mongol empire was nominal except in Mongolia and China. He recruited men of all nations for his civil service, but only Mongols were permitted to hold the highest government posts. He promoted economic prosperity by rebuilding the Grand Canal, repairing public granaries, and extending highways. He fostered Chinese scholarship and arts. Although he favored Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism), other religions (except Taoism) were tolerated. Kublai encouraged foreign commerce, and his magnificent capital at Cambuluc (now Beijing) was visited by several Europeans, notably Marco Polo, who described it. It was long thought to be the city Xanadu, featured in Coleridge's poem Kubla Khan. Kublai's name is also spelled Khubilai, Kubilai, Koublai, and Kubla.

Bibliography

See J. J. Saunders, The History of the Mongol Conquests (1971); M. Rossabi, Khubilai Khan (1988).

Kublai Khan

 

(Mongol posthumous title, Setsen Khan; Chinese temple name, Shih-tsu). Born Sept. 23, 1215; died Feb. 18, 1294, in what is now Peking. Fifth Mongol great khan (from 1260); grandson of Genghis Khan.

During the reign of the Mongol khan Mangu (1251–59), Kublai was made head of an army sent to complete the conquest of China. After Mangu’s death, he seized the throne. In 1260 he moved the capital from Karakorum to the city of K’aip’ing in China, and in 1264 he made Chungtu (now Peking) the capital. On Dec. 18, 1271, Kublai Khan gave his Mongol Dynasty the Chinese name Ta Yuan. In 1279 he completed the conquest of the empire of the Southern Sung, thereby extending his rule to all of China. Kublai Khan’s military expeditions to Japan in 1274 and 1281 and to Java in 1293 were unsuccessful, as were the campaigns of Mongol forces to Vietnam between 1257 and 1288 and to Burma between 1277 and 1287.

Kublai Khan

?1216--94, Mongol emperor of China: grandson of Genghis Khan. He completed his grandfather's conquest of China by overthrowing the Sung dynasty (1279) and founded the Yuan dynasty (1279--1368)
References in periodicals archive ?
Regarded in this light, Kublai Khan (even if Irving Babbitt surely would not agree) seems a most fit symbol for the romantic longing for exoticism and paradise city: Rome, which in the final analysis gave the name of romanticism, in this new stage of evolution is replaced by Xanadu--to which all roads of the romantic imagination led in Coleridge's new synthesis, just as Prometheus led the way towards the new Olympus in the version of the similar romantic synthesis offered by Lord Byron, P.
Another name, Kublai Khan, is one that resonates with every child in English literature lessons who memorized Samuel Taylor Coleridge's famous poem "Kubla Khan" published in 1816.
When Marco Polo arrived at the fabled empire ruled by Kublai Khan in the late thirteenth century, Europe was still mired in the Middle Ages.
If my wife turned to me and said "I've got a free evening tonight, think I'll knock-up some shoes in the style of 12th century Mongolian leader Kublai Khan," I'd think the menopause had taken yet another worrying turn.
Marco Polo traveling from China to Persia in a squadron escorting the granddaughter of Kublai Khan to espouse the Khan of Persia in 1293 wrote "the island produces more beautiful and valuable rubies than found in any other part of the world, and likewise sapphires, topazes, amethysts, garnets and many other precious stones".
In 1253 Drogon Chogyal Phagpa, one of the five founders of the Sakyapa school of Tibetan Buddhism, the first vice--king of Tibet and spiritual advisor to Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongo Empire, developed priest--patron concept featuring TibetoMongolian relations.
Because, just like in Germany in the 1920s and any number of other examples I could cite going back to Mongolian Emperor Kublai Khan, the monetary authority is conspiring to rob savers.
Research and write a short report on one of these pivotal figures in Chinese history: Confucius, Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, Kublai Khan, Sun Yat-sen, Mao Zedong, or Deng Xiaoping.
n Xanadu did Kublai Khan a stately pleasure dome decree.
In 1279, the Chinese astronomer Guo Shoujing was commissioned by Emperor Kublai Khan to survey the seas around China.
He would spend the next 24 years venturing into the Far East China, serving for a few years in the court of Mongol emperor Kublai Khan.
When the Japanese refused to pay tribute to Kublai Khan, the Mongol emperor launched hundreds of ships against the islands of Japan in 1281.