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(until 1935, Samara), a city; administrative center of Kuibyshev Oblast, RSFSR. Renamed in honor of V. V. Kuibyshev. The city is located on the left, elevated bank of the Volga, which is joined at this point by the Samara River. A major transportation hub, Kuibyshev has railroad lines to Moscow, Ufa, and Orenburg. It is a river port, and it has an airport. As of 1972, the population of Kuibyshev was 1,094,000 (90,000 in 1897; 176,000 in 1926; 390,000 in 1939; and 806,000 in 1959). It has an area of 330 sq km. The city is divided into eight districts.
Founded in 1586 as a fortress, Samara became a city in 1688. The first descriptions of it date from 1623. In 1708 the city became part of Kazan Province, and in 1719, part of Astrakhan’ Province. The urban poor actively participated in the Peasant Wars (1670–71 and 1773–75) under the leadership of S. T. Razin and E. I. Pugachev. Samara became the district city of Simbirsk Vicegerency in 1780 and of Simbirsk Province in 1796. On Jan. 1, 1851, it became the administrative center of Samara Province.
A major center for the grain market, Samara was also important for trade in lard, wool, and hides. The chief industries were the processing of agricultural products and flour milling. By the end of 1913 there were as many as 100 enterprises employing a total of 8,000 workers. During the 1870’s, Samara was a center of the Narodnik (Populist) movement. From October 1889 through August 1893, V. I. Lenin lived in Samara, where he was employed as a defense lawyer in the Samara district court. He organized the first Marxist circle in Samara. From 1895 to 1896, M. Gorky lived in the city and worked on the Samarskaia gazeta. The Samara committee of the RSDLP was established in August 1902, and in November 1905 a soviet was elected.
From 1917, Samara’s party organization was directed by V. V. Kuibyshev. Soviet power was established in the city on the night of Oct. 26 (Nov. 8), 1917. On June 8, 1918, the city was captured by the White Czechs, and the counterrevolutionary regime of the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly (Komuch) was established. Red Army units liberated the city on Oct. 7, 1918. During the spring of 1919 the headquarters of the staff of the Southern Group of the Eastern Front was located in Samara. Led by M. V. Frunze and V. V. Kuibyshev, these troops attacked Kolchak’s troops at the end of April and in May 1919, driving them back from the Volga (the counteroffensive on the Eastern Front in 1919).
During the period of socialist construction the city of Kuibyshev grew into a major industrial, transportation, and cultural center. At the time of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) many enterprises were evacuated from western regions of the country and relocated in Kuibyshev. In 1945 the city’s industrial production was 5.5 times that of 1940.
Present-day Kuibyshev is a major center of the machine-building, metalworking, oil-refining, food-processing, and building materials industries. In 1972 the industrial output was 1,010 times that of 1913 and 50 times that of 1940. Of All-Union importance in machine building and metalworking are the machine-tool and instrument-making industries (the Central Volga plants for manufacturing machine tools and coordinate boring tools), the aircraft industry, electrical engineering (the production of electrical equipment for tractors, magnetos, spark plugs, generators, starters, electric motors, and cables at electrical engineering plants and at KuibyshevkabeP, a cable plant). The bearings industry is also important. In addition, parts and assemblies for motor vehicles and tractors, equipment for farms, and equipment for the petroleum, construction, and food-processing industries, as well as for light industry, are manufactured in Kuibyshev. The most important plants are Strommashina and Prodmash, workshops at individual enterprises, and valve and drill factories. The V. I. Lenin Metallurgical Plant, which produces lightweight alloys, has been in operation since 1960. There is an oil refinery in Kuibyshev. The building materials industry has grown considerably. Reinforced-concrete structural components, blocks, and panels and structural assemblies and parts are produced at reinforced-concrete plants. There is also a Ruberoid roof sheeting plant.
In the food-processing industry there are many old but completely renovated enterprises—flour mills, macaroni factories, confectionery factories, and a brewery. New high-capacity enterprises have been built, including a meat-packing complex, a fats combine, a dairy, a tobacco factory, and the Rossiia Chocolate Factory. Among Kuibyshev’s light industrial enterprises are garment, knit goods, and footwear factories. The energy base includes local steam power plants (the Kuibyshev State District Power Plant and the Bezymianka Heat and Electric Power Plant), as well as steam power plants in the oblast’s major cities and the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant, which is part of the Kuibyshev Power System.
E. F. FEDOROVA
Before the October Revolution the city still had the rectangular grid of streets established by a city plan of 1854. Most of the buildings, whose architecture was eclectic, had been built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (for example, the Olympus Theater [now the philharmonic society’s building], the bank, and the drama theater). Kuibyshev grew chiefly during the Soviet period. Between 1940 and 1945 the architects N. la. Kolli and A. V. Kuznetsov directed the drafting of a general plan that preserved the old layout but provided for the creation of a new center in the northeastern section of the city near the botanical garden. Residential districts are being built under the general plan of 1967.
Among Kuibyshev’s major public buildings are the Soviet Army House (1932, architect P. A. Shcherbachev), the V. V. Kuibyshev Palace of Culture (1936–38, architect N. A. Trotskii), the Dinamo Stadium (1948, architect I. G. Salonikidi), the Press House (1961), the circus (1969), and the House of Trade Unions (1971). There are monuments to V. I. Lenin (bronze and granite, 1925; sculptor M. G. Manizer; architect V. A. Vitman) and V. V. Kuibyshev (bronze and granite, 1938; sculptor M. G. Manizer; architect N. A. Trotskii). The Monument to the Eternal Glory of the Heroes of the Patriotic War was completed in 1971 (sculptor P. I. Bondarenko; architect A. B. Samsonov).
A. A. SUDARIKOVA
Until 1917, Samara had 23 schools with an enrollment of 8,600, a zemstvo (district assembly) school for feldshers, and a teachers institute with an enrollment of 88. There were no higher educational institutions in the city. During the academic year 1971–72, 160,000 students were enrolled in 211 general education schools of all types, 15,000 were enrolled in 31 vocational-technical schools, and 43,000 in 28 specialized secondary educational institutions. There were 47,200 students enrolled in the city’s nine higher educational institutions (the University of Kuibyshev, medical, pedagogical, polytechnic, construction engineering, planning, and aviation institutes, an electrical engineering communications institute, and an institute of culture). In 1972, 53,300 children were enrolled in 427 preschool institutions.
As of Jan. 1, 1972, there were 123 public libraries with 7.1 million copies of books and journals. The city has five museums: the oblast museum of local lore, the city art museum, the Gorky Literary Museum, the Lenin Museum House, and the M. V. Frunze Museum House. In addition, there are four theaters (the Gorky Drama Theater, an opera and ballet theater, a children’s theater, and a puppet theater) and a circus. Kuibyshev is the Volga Folk Chorus’ home city. There is also a philharmonic society. The city has a Palace of Sports, 50 club institutions, 68 motion-picture units, and a number of extracurricular institutions (three Pioneer Palaces, three Pioneer Houses, a young technicians’ station, a children’s stadium and youth hostel, three children’s parks, and 11 children’s sports schools).
In addition to the city’s evening newspaper, Volzhskaia zaria (since 1969), two oblast newspapers are published in Kuibyshev — Volzhskaia kommuna (since 1907) and Volzhskii komsomolets (since 1920). Local television and radio broadcasts are carried for four and two hours per day, respectively. In addition, pro-grams are relayed from Central Television and Radio Broadcasting.
In 1972, Kuibyshev had 66 hospital-type institutions with 12,700 beds (11.6 beds per 1,000 inhabitants). There were three children’s homes with 250 beds and 75 children’s nurseries with 5,700 places. The city’s population is served by 4,800 physicians (one per 439 inhabitants). Medical personnel are trained at the D. I. Ulianov Medical Institute (founded in 1942) and at a medical college. Located in Kuibyshev is a scientific research institute of hygiene (founded in 1929). Near the city there are 11 children’s sanatoriums (1,400 beds), two sanatoriums for adults (600 beds), and five workers’ resorts (1,600 places).
REFERENCESGorod Kuibyshev. Kuibyshev, 1957. [Sobolev, I. M.] Kuibyshev: Putevoditel’. Kuibyshev, 1966.
Gorod Kuibyshev za 50 let Sovetskoi vlasti: Tsifry i fakty. Kuibyshev, 1967.
Gorod Kuibyshev. Kuibyshev, 1971.
Ponomarev, A. M. Gorod Kuibyshev: Putevoditel’. Kuibyshev, 1971.
(formerly Kainsk), a city in Novosibirsk Oblast, RSFSR. Located on both banks of the Om’ River (a tributary of the Irtysh), the city is connected by a 12-km railroad branch with the Barabinsk Station on the Trans-Siberian trunk line. In 1970, Kuibyshev had a population of 40,000. A plant that manufactures spare parts for motor vehicles is located in the city, as well as dairy, canning, and meat-packing combines. Kuibyshev is the site of the Barabinsk State Regional Power Plant. Its educational institutions include polytechnical and agricultural technicums and medical and pedagogical schools.
Founded in 1722, Kainsk became a city in 1782. In 1935 it was renamed in honor of V. V. Kuibyshev, who was in exile there from 1907 to 1909. The V. V. Kuibyshev Museum House is located in the city.
(known as Spassk from 1781 to 1926 and as Spassk-Tatarskii from 1926 to 1935), a city; administrative center of Kuibyshev Raion of the Tatar ASSR. Located on the shore of the Kuibyshev Reservoir 100 km north of the Cherdakly railroad station on the Ul’ianovsk-Ufa Line and 210 km south of Kazan. There are food-processing enterprises in Kuibyshev. Founded in 1781, the city was renamed in honor of V. V. Kuibyshev.