glutamine

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glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.

glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
Emmaus Medical is currently conducting clinical trials to investigate the safety and efficacy of oral L-glutamine for sickle cell disease.
12% sodium bicarbonate, 4 mM L-glutamine (all from Invitrogen), 100 IU/ml penicillin, 100 [micro]g/ml streptomycin, 40 [micro]g/ml fangizone, 25 mg/ml insulin, 100 mg/ml transferrin, 60 mM putrescine, 30 nM sodiumselenite, 6 mg/ml D-(1)-glucose, 30 mg/ml pyruvic acid, 1 mg/ml DL-lactic acid (all from Sigma-Aldrich), 5 mg/ml bovine albumin (ICN Biomedical, USA), 2 mM L-glutamine, 5 x [10.
The colo 205, WEHI-3 and HL-60 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, to the Hep G2, B16-F1 and A375 S2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's minimal essential (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, and 2% penicillin-streptomycin (10,000 U/ml penicillin and 10mg/ml streptomycin).
Effects of dietary supplementation of crystalline L-glutamine on the gastrointestinal tract and whole bodygrowth in early-weaned piglets fed corn and soy bean meal based diets.
Our work demonstrated that the damaging effects of ammonia on gastric cells could be reversed completely by the administration of L-glutamine.
The cells were successfully grown in DMEM containing selected lots of 10% FCS, 2 mmol/L L-glutamine, 100 U/ml of penicillin G and 100 [micro]g/ml of streptomycin at 37[degree]C in 5% carbon dioxide for the first passage (Figure 1), and attached MSCs (Figure 2) were selected while the suspension hematopoietic stem cells were discarded.
Currently, patients who require L-Glutamine must purchase non-pharmaceutical grade L-Glutamine on their own without insurance coverage.
QCE Laboratories offers Decub-Amine[TM] protein supplement, enhanced with L-arginine and L-glutamine plus essential fatty acids, providing elements necessary for cell growth and replication.
Hair of the Dog comes in three flavours--original, sugar free and sugar-free Night Time Formula--which contain combinations of vitamin C, L-glutamine, milk thistle extract and other active ingredients.
2] in RPMI 1640 medium (containing 25 mM Hepes; LabForce AG, Nunningen, Switzerland) with 10% fetal bovine serum (LabForce), 1% L-glutamine (LabForce), and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Gibco BRL, Invitrogen AG, Basel, Switzerland).
Cells were propagated in Earle's minimal essential medium (MEM) (Gibco Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) containing L-glutamine, antimicrobial drugs, and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS).
Pills containing vitamin C, L-Glutamine, succinic and fumaric acids.