glutamine

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glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.

glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
The randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial on which the approval of L-glutamine was based (GLUSCC09-01) included patients aged 5-58 years with sickle cell disease or beta-0 thalassemia who had at least two episodes of painful crises during the 12 months before screening.
The control medium consisted of DMEM-F12 (Biowest, France), supplemented with 10% FBS (BioIdea, Iran), 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Biowest, France), and 1% L-glutamine (BioIdea, Iran).
Supplements that can support dopamine production may include: L-glutamine, Vitamins B6, B3 and C Epinephrine (adrenaline) regulates glucose metabolism and energy levels; low levels are linked to depression, poor memory, focus, and concentration issues.
2] tissue culture flask, diluted with up to 10 mL of RPMI 1640 containing 1 mmol/L L-glutamine (GIBCO/BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) and supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% (w/v) penicillin/streptomycin.
suggested that endophyte infected grasses represent greater activity of glutamine synthase, that is responsible for synthesis of glutamine in plant roots and thereby, the higher activity of L-glutaminase in the rhizosphere of E+ plants can be possibly attributed to higher concentration of the L-glutamine that is excreted into the rhizosphere and consequently induced higher levels of L-glutaminase activity.
Determination of Glutamine in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Human Serum Samples and L-glutamine Capsule and Recovery Studies
12% sodium bicarbonate, 4 mM L-glutamine (all from Invitrogen), 100 IU/ml penicillin, 100 [micro]g/ml streptomycin, 40 [micro]g/ml fangizone, 25 mg/ml insulin, 100 mg/ml transferrin, 60 mM putrescine, 30 nM sodiumselenite, 6 mg/ml D-(1)-glucose, 30 mg/ml pyruvic acid, 1 mg/ml DL-lactic acid (all from Sigma-Aldrich), 5 mg/ml bovine albumin (ICN Biomedical, USA), 2 mM L-glutamine, 5 x [10.
The two drugs currently approved by the FDA for SBS are somatropin rhGH (Zorbtive), a growth hormone approved in 2003, and L-glutamine powder for oral solution (Nutrestore), an adjunctive treatment approved in 2004.
Other formulas, like GastroThera from ProThera (888-488-2488), contain l-glutamine, an amino acid that can heal the intestines.
Taken with a medical professional's supervision, L-glutamine can help a recovering addict reduce cravings for alcohol and sugar by up to 35 percent.