8) (6,656 genes), which participate in the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, indicating that quite a few gut microbes, including the genus Clostridium, Lachnospira, and Ruminococcus, play important role in digesting cellulose in yaks.
Large number of genes discovered in the genus Clostridium, Lachnospira, and Ruminococcus, which code enzymes related to the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, confirms the dynamic changes of the gut microbiota in older yaks.
Finlay and his colleagues identified a transient imbalance early in life in children with atopy, wheeze, and asthma of four specific bacterial taxa: Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira
, Veillonella, and Rothia.
At the genus level, the composition of Blautia was increased in T1DM group than control group whereas the composition of Haemophilus, Lachnospira, Dialister, and Acidaminococcus was decreased.
A cladogram representation of the microbiota structure of the two groups and their predominant bacteria was performed by LEfSe [Figure 3], showing significantly higher level of Blautia in T1DM group, whereas the levels of Haemophilus , Lachnospira , Intestinimonas , Dialister , Micrococcales , Pasteurellaceae , and Caulobacterales were remarkable lower than those in control group.
At the genus level, the 5 most abundant genera in the Before sample were Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Lachnospira
, Subdoligranulum, and Blautia.
Bacteria of the genera Bacteroides, Prevotella, Ruminobacter, Fibrobacter, Methanobrevibacter, Methanomicrobium and Clostridium (spores) are rod-shaped; Butyrovibrio, Selenomonas and Lachnospira
are curved rod bacteria; cocci indicate the presence of Ruminococcus, Streptococcus and Megasphaera.
In contrast, Firmicutes of the class Clostridia are depleted in alcoholics but are not significantly changed in the cirrhosis group, with the exception of Veillonellaceae, which is increased and Lachnospira
, which is decreased (table 1).
Bacteroides 36% Ruminococcus 18% Blautia 15% Lachnospira
12% Porphyrornonas 5% Other 14% Not: Table made from pie chart.
Tabla 1 Especies frecuentes del rumen Esyecie Consume Produce Fibrobacter succinogenes CU S, F, A Ruminococcus albus CU, HC A, F, E Ruminococcus SSavefaciens CU, HC S, F, A Eubacterium ruminantium HC, DX, SU A, F, B Ruminobacter amylophilus PC S, F, A Succinomonas amylolytica PC, SU L, A, F Butyrivibrio pbrisolvens PC S, A, P Selenomonas ruminantium PC, CU, HC B, F, A Megasphaera elsdenu PC, DX, SU L, A, P Lachnospira
multiparus PC, SU P, A, B Succinivibrio dextrtnosolvens PC, SU, DX L, A, F Anaerovibrio lipolytica GL, SU S, A, F Clostridium aminophilum AA A, S, P Clostridium sticklandii AA Br, A Wolinella succinogenes AA A, B Methanobrevibacter ruminantium [H.
Among them, Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae are more abundant in omnivores, whereas Lachnospira
and Sporobacter are less abundant in omnivores.
The family Lachnospiraceae includes the genus Butyrivibrio, Lachnospira
and Roseburia (Cotta and Forster, 2006).