Coccinellidae

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Coccinellidae

[käk·sə′nel·ə‚dē]
(invertebrate zoology)
The ladybird beetles, a family of coleopteran insects in the superfamily Cucujoidea.

Coccinellidae

 

a family of beetles. The body is convex, rounded, or oval. The coloration consists of various combinations of red, yellow, white, and black, with mostly black spots on a light background, or, more rarely, the reverse. The body is usually 4 to 7 mm long. The beetles are easily noticed because of their bright “protective” coloration, which is the same in the larvae and pupae. When touched, they secrete drops of a caustic orange hemolymph from the knee joints. The beetles are inedible for the majority of insectivorous invertebrates. The beetles and larvae are predators and extremely voracious; they feed on aphids, scale insects, and other small insects. A few species are herbivorous. There are approximately 2,000 species. They are distributed in all the countries of the world; in the European part of the USSR there are about 80 species. The predatory species are useful, whereas several herbivorous species are harmful. For example, the melon ladybug (Epilachna chrysomelina) harms melon crops in the south of Russia, and the 28-spotted ladybug (E. vigintioctomaculata) damages potatoes in the Far East. Predatory ladybugs are used in combating scale insects. In Abkhazia, the imported Australian ladybug (Rodolia cardinalis) and Cryptolaemus mon-trouzieri suppressed the reproduction of the dangerous citrus crop pests, the fluted scale and the citrus mealybug, as well as the cushion scale. In the USSR local ladybugs are also used to combat aphids. Ladybugs are collected to be released where there are many aphids. The collection of ladybugs is facilitated by the fact that they often hibernate in large piles (under rocks and pulvinate shrubs, for example).

REFERENCES

Telenga, N. A. Biologicheskii metod bor’by s vrednymi nasekomymi (khishchnye koktsinellidy i ispol’zovanie ikh ν SSSR). Kiev, 1948.
Diadechko, N. P. Koktsinellidy Ukrainskoi SSR. Kiev, 1954.
Biologicheskaia bor’ba s vrednymi nasekomymi i sorniakami. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

N. N. PLAVIL’SHCHIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
ANTHUM GRAVEOLENS (dill) Lady beetles, syrphid flies, wasps
Coleomegilla maculata is not the most dispersive of lady beetles but is certainly capable of flight and dispersal (Hodek 1973).
Common ladybugs tend to have fewer spots than Asian lady beetles.
For instance, various native, non-pest aphids may potentially be impacted from non-target predation by invasive lady beetles (Rand and Louda, 2006).
In the Ecology and Evolution paper, Hsieh, Perfecto and their colleagues show that female lady beetles -- especially pregnant ones -- detect the phorid-alert pheromone and take advantage of the ensuing lull in activity to search out safe egg-deposition sites with plenty of food for their offspring.
Although many people consider them a nuisance, multicoloured Asian lady beetles are good at controlling aphid pests.
Half of the groups were given two lady beetles, while the other half were not given a predator (testing the effects of nutrients only).
Because no indigenous disease-causing organisms or native predators or parasitoids that can regulate this adelgid occur in the United States, mass releases of the lady beetles (Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji and McClure)) constitute the most commonly used tactic to suppress HWA populations (McClure, 1995b; Cheah and McClure, 1996).
Unfortunately, these lady beetles became a major issue themselves in many areas of the country.
Spiders, wasps, toads, snakes, lady beetles, lacewings, birds, assassin bugs and ground beetles are actually feeding on the pests in our gardens - unless you have already killed them with chemical sprays.
Understanding the feeding behavior of lady beetles will help agronomists develop cropping systems that best use these important beneficial insects as biological controls of insect pests, such as aphids and Colorado potato beetles.