In contrast, organisational (or organisational plus architectural) monosymmetry often characterizes species-rich families or orders with complex monosymmetric flowers (Fabaceae, Lamiales, Orchidaceae, Zingiberales).
Lamiales are a huge clade in terms of species, genera and families with monosymmetric, often elaborate bilabiate flowers (Kampny, 1995).
The genetic system responsible for monosymmetry in Lamiales was at least partly established much before the origin of Lamiales, at least at the level of basal eudicots (Coen & Nugent, 1994; Cubas et al.
Duplication of floral regulatory genes in Lamiales.
diversified later, in the Oligocene (Table 15; Fig.
Evolution of carnivory in Lentibulariaceae and the Lamiales
2000a, 2000b) Lamiales
Lentibulariaceae (Genlisea 2/8; Utricularia 3/17) Euasterids II Icacinaceae (Leptaulus 4/4, W; Platea 2/7); Polyosmaceae (Polyosma 43/46) Aquifoliales Phyllonomaceae (Phyllonoma 4/4) Families of uncertain position Cardiopteridaceae (Gonocaryum 11/14, W); Geissolomataceae (Geissoloma 1/1); Pentaphylacaceae (Pentaphyllax 3/3); Peridiscaceae (Peridiscus 1/1, W; Whittonia 1/1)
Phylogenesis of insect/plant interactions: have Phyllobrotica leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) and the Lamiales
diversified in parallel?