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Lancaster(lăng`kəstər), city (1991 pop. 43,902) and district, county seat of Lancashire, NW England, on the Lune River. The city's products include furniture, textiles, synthetic fiber, farm machinery, linoleum, and soap. It also has an active livestock market. Lancaster Castle occupies the site of a Roman station. The castle has a Norman keep and tower (built 1170) with a turret called John o' Gaunt's Chair. St. Mary's Church dates from the 15th cent. Lancaster has a university and a civic and regimental museum.
Lancaster.1 Uninc. city (1990 pop. 97,291), Los Angeles co., S Calif., in Antelope Valley and in the Mojave Desert; laid out 1894. It developed as a trade center for an irrigated farming area and has since become an important site for electronic, aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries. Local borax mining and the nearby Edwards Air Force Base, a major military installation, add to Lancaster's economy. The city is the seat of Antelope Valley College and has a Native American museum with prehistoric artifacts.
2 Village (1990 pop. 11,940), Erie co., W N.Y.; inc. 1849. Its industries include lumber mills, dairy farms, and stone quarries.
3 City (1990 pop. 34,507), seat of Fairfield co., S central Ohio, on the Hocking River, in a livestock and dairy area; founded 1800 by Ebenezer Zane, inc. as a village 1831. Its manufactures include glassware, shoes, heating equipment, and automotive parts. The birthplace of the brothers Gen. William T. Sherman and Senator John Sherman has been preserved. In the area are many covered bridges and a Native American mound in the form of a cross. The city contains a campus of Ohio Univ.
4 City (1990 pop. 55,551), seat of Lancaster co., SE Pa., on the Conestoga River, in the heart of the Pennsylvania Dutch country; inc. as a city 1818. It is the commercial center for a productive agricultural county. Chief products are livestock, poultry, grain, potatoes, soybeans, alfalfa, apples, and dairy items. Manufacturing includes electrical, concrete, and aluminum products; security and medical equipment; automotive parts; and food products. There is also commercial printing. Lancaster is the seat of Franklin and Marshall College and a theological seminary, and it is noted for its large Amish and Mennonite communities. The area was settled by German Mennonites c.1709 and was a starting point for westward-bound pioneers. The famous Conestoga wagon was developed there. The borough of Lancaster was laid out in 1730 and was one of the first inland cities in the country. A munitions center during the Revolution, it was briefly (1777) a meeting place of the Continental Congress and served as capital of the state for more than 10 years before 1812. Robert FultonFulton, Robert,
1765–1815, American inventor, engineer, and painter, b. near Lancaster, Pa. He was a man remarkable for his many talents and his mechanical genius.
..... Click the link for more information. was born nearby. Points of interest include Wheatland, the home of President James BuchananBuchanan, James,
1791–1868, 15th President of the United States (1857–61), b. near Mercersburg, Pa., grad. Dickinson College, 1809. Early Career
Buchanan studied law at Lancaster, Pa.
..... Click the link for more information. (built in 1828), and the Fulton Opera House (1854).
5 City (1990 pop. 22,117), Dallas co., in NE Tex.; settled 1846, inc. 1886. It is a processing and shipping center for a fruit, vegetable, and cotton region. Chemicals, transportation equipment, bricks, brass valves, and metal products are manufactured.
a dynasty of English kings (1399–1461); a branch of the Plantagenets.
The house of Lancaster originated with the fourth son of Edward III, John of Gaunt, who was the duke of Lancaster. The son of the latter, Henry IV (the first Lancaster), came to power as a result of a revolt by major feudal lords in northern England that overthrew Richard II. To meet the needs of the feudal aristocracy, Henry V (ruled 1413–22) resumed the Hundred Years’ War and captured northern France. Under the last Lancaster, the weak-minded Henry VI (ruled 1422–61), the British lost almost all their possessions in France (except Calais). The Lancasters brutally suppressed popular movements (including Jack Cade’s rebellion in 1450) and enacted laws on the burning of heretics, which were aimed against the Lollards. In the internecine struggle between the Lancasters and another branch of the Plantagenets, the Yorks, the throne in 1461 passed to Edward IV of York.
a city and port in Great Britain in Lune Estuary, in Lancashire County. Population, 49,500 (1971). Lancaster produces linoleum, oilcloth, plastics, and synthetic-fiber textiles. Machine building is an important branch of the local economy. The city has a university and an observatory.
a city in the eastern USA, in the state of Pennsylvania. Population, 57,700 (1970; with suburbs, 319,700). Lancaster is the center of an important agricultural region, trading in cattle and tobacco. Industry employed 56,000 residents in 1969; they produced metalwork, machines, textiles, knitted goods, tobacco, processed foods, watches, linoleum, and umbrellas. There is a university in the city.
a sound in the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located between Devon Island and Baffin and Bylot islands. Width, 50–80 km; depth, 137–1,232 m. Lancaster Sound is covered by ice for ten months of the year. It was discovered in 1616 by the English navigator W. Baffin.