Laurence Sterne


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Sterne, Laurence

(stûrn), 1713–68, English author, b. Ireland. Educated at Cambridge, he entered the Anglican church and was given the living of Sutton-in-the-Forest, Yorkshire, in 1738, where he remained until 1759. He came to London the following year and was a great social success. Unhappily married, he was involved with various women during his lifetime, most notably Mrs. Eliza Draper, for whom he wrote the Journal to Eliza (1767). He led a somewhat dissolute life and much of the time was plagued by ill health, dying finally of tuberculosis. In 1760 the first volume of his masterpiece Tristram Shandy appeared. Although it was denounced on moral and literary grounds by Dr. Johnson, Horace Walpole, and others, the book was a popular success and eight subsequent volumes followed (1761–67). As a result of his travels to the Continent (1762–66) he wrote, but left unfinished, A Sentimental Journey (1768). He also published in his lifetime several volumes of sermons. One of the most entertaining and original literary works in English, Tristram Shandy is, in a sense, a parody of a novel. It is a hodgepodge of character sketches, blank pages, dramatic action, transposed chapters, and various digressions. Sterne constantly obtrudes himself into the novel and is by turns witty, satiric, sentimental, knowledgeable, and obscene. Beneath this apparent chaos, however, is a structure based on the association of ideas. In Tristram Shandy Sterne enlarged the scope of the novel from the mere recording of external incidents to the depiction of a complex of internal impressions, thoughts, and feelings.

Bibliography

See the Shakespeare Head Press edition of his works (7 vol., 1926–27); his letters (ed. by L. P. Curtis, 1935); his memoirs ed. by D. Grant (1950); biographies by W. L. Cross (3d rev. ed. 1967), W. B. Piper (1965), D. Thomson (1973), and A. H. Cash (2 vol.,1975–86); studies by L. C. Hartley (1966), J. M. Stedmond (1967), J. Traugott, comp. (1968), and Valerie G. Myer (1984).

Sterne, Laurence

 

Born Nov. 24, 1713, in Clonmel, Ireland; died Mar. 18, 1768, in London. British writer; most prominent representative of sentimentalism.

Sterne graduated from the school of divinity at Cambridge University in 1738 and became a clergyman. In his parodie novel The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (vols. 1–9, 1760–67; Russian translation, vols. 1–6, 1804–07), Sterne polemically exaggerated and reduced to absurdity Enlightenment pretensions of having reached a rational understanding of life. Following D. Hume, he also expressed doubt as to the infallibility of the “heart,” the chief category of sentimentalist ethics. The novel’s chaotic composition, eccentricity of narrative manner, and violation of moral taboos called forth a fierce polemic against it. Sterne’s reconsideration of literary canons and traditional concepts of man was continued in his unfinished A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (1768; Russian translation, 1793). The mechanism of sharp changes in mental states, the capricious play of emotions, and the narrator-hero’s ironical self-analysis all serve to expose the incompleteness and one-sidedness of concepts coming both from the Enlightenment and sentimentalism. Another experiment in psychological studies was the Sermons of Mr. Yorick (vols. 1–2, 1760–69).

Sterne’s influence was particularly strong in France (on Diderot) and Germany (Jean Paul). In Russia, he influenced A. N. Radishchev, N. M. Karamzin, and V. F. Odoevskii; A. S. Pushkin and L. N. Tolstoy expressed their high opinion of him. In the early 20th century, the formal-experimental features of Sterne’s poetics had a revival in “stream-of-consciousness” literature.

WORKS

Works and Life, vols. 1–12. New York, 1904.
Letters. Oxford, 1935.
Zhizn’ i mneniia Tristrama Shendi, dzhentl’mena. Sentimental’noe putesheslvie po Frantsii i Italii. Moscow. 1968.

REFERENCES

Tronskaia, M. L. Nemetskii sentimental’no-iumoristicheskii roman epokhi Prosveshcheniia. Leningrad, 1965.
Elistratova, A. A. Angliiskii roman epokhi Prosveshcheniia. Moscow, 1966.
Cross, W. Life and Times of Laurence Sterne. New Haven, 1929.
The Winged Skull London [1971].
Thomson, D. Wild Excursions: The Life and Fiction of Laurence Sterne. London [1972].
Hartley, L. Laurence Sterne in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill [1966].

V. A. KHARITONOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Robert Folkenflik, 'Tristram Shandy and Eighteenth-Century Narrative', in The Cambridge Companion to Laurence Sterne, ed.
No confronto entre esses dois romances, vemos que Machado combinou os fogos de artificio formais do Tristram Shandy, de Laurence Sterne, com a descricao psicologica do final do seculo XIX para produzir uma ficcao comica, amarga e nao raro compassiva, que antecipa, de forma notavel, os escritores modernistas e mesmo pos-modernistas do seculo XX.
There were very few avenues open to a well-educated but penurious young man at that time, and Laurence Sterne seems never to have questioned the decision that he go into the church.
2] The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, 1st London edn [2nd edn], 9 vols (London: Dodsley, 1760), ix, 36: henceforth abbreviated as TS; see also The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman,in The Florida Edition of the Works of Laurence Sterne, ed.
In the eighteenth century, Laurence Sterne called textual delineations such as chapters "parables of preconception.
The final edition of the Index featured some 4,000 works, many of them deservedly obscure and banned for doctrinal reasons, but many of them some of the greatest prose compositions in history: Michel de Montaigne's Essais, Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary, Victor Hugo's Les Miserables, the travel books of Laurence Sterne and Joseph Addison, John Milton's State Papers, Daniel Defoe's History of the Devil, Edward Gibbon's immense and wonderful Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and the complete works of Emile Zola.
intellectual debt to Herman Melville, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, and most importantly Herman Hesse.
There, Burstein found numerous references to the writings of Laurence Sterne, creator of Tristram Shandy and proponent of the "principle that thought without feeling is as useless as feeling without reason" (p.
This anthology reprints some very good essays on important topics -- Nicholas Horsfall on the origins of the illustrated book, Francoise Henry on the Lindisfarne Gospels, William Holtz on the relationship between Laurence Sterne and William Hogarth, Albert Boime on William Blake, Catherine Golden on Beatrix Potter, and so on.
All this could lead you to think that the paintings produced are a kind of "process art," but I believe they are moving away from that, at least insofar as I'm concerned with absurd bits of evidence: the state of mind of my work is indebted to authors such as Lewis Carroll or Laurence Sterne.
The latter topic hardly seemed promising, but Honan persuasively shows that Jane Austen could and did learn from Laurence Sterne because, like Sterne, she is a realistic, unsaccharine sentimentalist "to the extent that an attitude to feeling is at the center of her psychology of perception and her view of human relationships.