Loan

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loan,

in business, sum of money borrowed at a particular interest rate. More generally, it refers to anything given on condition of its return or repayment of its equivalent. A loan may be acknowledged by a bond, a promissory note, or a mere oral promise to repay. Because of biblical injunctions against usury, the early Christian church forbade the taking of interest. In feudal European society, loans were little needed by the great mass of relatively self-sufficient and noncommercial peasants and serfs, but kings, nobles, and ecclesiastics were heavy borrowers for personal expenditures. Merchants and other townsmen, especially the Jews, were the moneylenders, and various devices were found for circumventing the prohibition of usury. With the rise of a commercial society, restrictions on the taking of interest were gradually relaxed. Today, banks and finance companies make most loans, usually on collateralcollateral
, something of value given or pledged as security for payment of a loan. Collateral consists usually of financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, and negotiable paper, rather than physical goods, although the latter may also be accepted as such.
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, such as stocks, personal effects, and mortgages on land and other property, or on assignments of wages. Credit unionscredit union,
cooperative, not-for-profit financial institution that makes low-interest personal loans to its members. It is usually composed of persons from the same occupational group or the same local community or institution.
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 have attained some importance in making personal loans at relatively low interest rates, and microcredit programs and organizations, which offer small-scale loans, have proved useful, particularly in developing countries, in helping individuals to establish small businesses. The 21st cent. has seen the rise of so-called peer-to-peer lending, in which companies use the Internet to match lenders with borrowers. Focusing on smaller personal and business loans, peer-to-peer lending has developed in part because investors faced lower interest rates on bonds and money-market funds in the aftermath of the recession of 2007–9. A pawnbrokerpawnbroker,
one who makes loans on personal effects that are left as security. The practice of pawnbroking is ancient, as is recognition of the danger it involves of oppressing the poor.
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 lends money on the security of articles left in his shop.

Loan

 

in civil law, a contract by which one party (the lender) transfers to the ownership of another party (the borrower) or to his management money or articles defined by generic characteristics, such as number, weight, measure (for example, grain), and the borrower undertakes to return the same amount of money or an equal quantity of articles of the same kind and quality. Loan contracts belong to the category of so-called real (the rights and obligations of the parties under such contract arise only from Jhe moment of the transfer of the loan) and unilateral contracts (the lender has the right to demand the return of the loaned property and does not carry any obligations, whereas the borrower is obliged to return the property and has no rights whatsoever). Under Soviet legislation, loan contracts are to be gratuitous, and the collection of interest is allowed only in cases prescribed by the legislation of the USSR and in the loan operations of public mutual aid funds and municipal pawnshops. A contract for an amount greater than 50 rubles must be concluded in writing.


Loan

 

(Russian, ssuda), a type of loan (zaem) in specie or in kind. The State Bank of the USSR (Gosbank) and other banks of the USSR, by paying out specific, fixed-term sums of money, extend credit to state organizations, collective farms and other cooperatives, and public organizations (see and CREDIT). Banks, public mutual-help offices, pawnbrokers, and the funds of associations of creative workers make loans in money to individual citizens, according to set regulations.

References in periodicals archive ?
Just like anyone else, lenders are going to set their priorities according to what's worked for them in the past.
651 would amend the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to limit the liability of mortgage lenders and federally insured depository institutions for the cost of hazardous substance removal.
Lenders and intermediaries can and should do more to tackle current problems with interest-only mortgages.
Remember that you are going to live with your new loan and your new lender (and your prepayment penalty) for years to come.
651 a lender would lose all benefit of the exemption if it caused or contributed to the release of hazardous wastes or failed to take reasonable steps to prevent continued release.
Lenders recuperate their investment in a couple of months and from that point forward it's pure profit.
Although this sounds draconian, it is the lenders ultimate mechanism for achieving leverage over an owner in a failed property situation.
Lenders base this on an appraisal which is derived from the sales prices and absorption achieved by similar products that have been "recently" built and sold.
That's particularly true in that hedge funds and distressed-asset lenders are prime forces in this type of lending, and may not have the stomach or the expertise to stay the course if things go south (see sidebar, "How Second Liens Complicate a Workout," on page 43).
After collecting data from more than 13,000 ZIP codes across the country, the study's authors found that, in almost every state, military towns ranked among the highest in number of payday lenders per capita.
For requests received before January 1, 2004, lenders need not report requests for preapproval (as that term is defined in section 203.
With a vested interest in nursing home operations, A/R lenders work with operators after a loan is consummated to ensure that their investment criteria are consistently satisfied.