Lengyel Culture

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Lengyel Culture


an archaeological culture of the Aeneolithic period (2600–2100 B .C.). The culture was named after the settlement and burial ground in the community of Lengyel in southern Hungary. The site was investigated by the Hungarian archaeologist M. Wosinsky between 1882 and 1888.

During the period of its greatest dissemination, the Lengyel culture, in addition to the southern part of the Carpathian basin, also existed in what is now Austria, southern Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The tools were of stone (flaked and polished) and bone. Individual copper objects were found. The pottery was decorated with painted or incised ornamentation. Many zoomorphic and anthropomorphic vessels and ceramic statuettes were also found. The population engaged in land cultivation and stock raising. The settlements were sometimes surrounded by ditches. The dwellings (rectangular houses constructed of upright posts) were built directly on the ground. In the burials of the Lengyel culture the corpses were usually placed in a flexed position on the side; less frequently, the corpses were cremated.


Tompa, F. von. “25 Jahre Urgeschichtsforschung in Ungarn, 1912–1936.” Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 1937, vols. 24–25.
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Well-known massacre sites such as those at Talheim in Baden-Wurttemberg and Asparn/Schletz in Lower Austria and the less well known site of San Juan ante Portam Latinam in northern Spain are treated carefully in their respective chapters (5, 6 and 15) as are the signs of manipulation of cadavers after death, for example in the Lengyel culture of Poland (chapter 4) and at Herxheim in Rhineland-Palatinate (chapter 6, which contains a strong refutation of arguments for cannibalism made by Boulestin et al.
The orientation of rondels of the Neolithic Lengyel culture in Central Europe.
The site of Polgar-Csoszhalom and its cultural and chronological connections with the Lengyel culture, in S.
The influence of the Bodrogkeresztur culture in Poland is well documented (Kozlowski 2006) and is visible in the Polgar groups in Lesser Poland, particularly the Wyciaze-Zlotniki group, in the Lengyel culture, such as the Jordanow group in Lower Silesia, the Late Lengyel Ocice group in Upper Silesia, the Brzesc Kujawski group of the Lengyel culture in the Polish Lowlands, and finally in the Lublin-Volhynia culture (Patay 1963; Kozlowski 1968, 1971, 2006; Wojciechowski 1972; Kaczanowska 1986; Kamienska & Kozlowski 1990; Kadrow 1992: ryc.
Istvan Zalai-Gaal's concise bur extremely useful survey of such occurrences takes us from the European Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in general to the Carpathian basin in particular, with the Koros culture and the western LBK (as far as Herxheime in the Rhineland) serving as points of reference for the special coverage of skull treatment in the earlier fifth millennium cal BC Lengyel culture of western and northern Hungary.
The highest uniformity in the architectural design of these earthworks is shown by those of the Lengyel culture, which is spread across Transdanubia in the Carpathian Basin, in south Slovakia, in east Austria and south Moravia (Figure 1).
The oldest archaeological evidence for boiling salt dates to the Neolithic era, roughly the fourth millennium BC, from the Lengyel Culture in Poland.
These are Neolithic kreisgrabenanlagen of the Lengyel culture (c.
Vedrovice is a multiphase settlement, yielding remains of the Palaeolithic, Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), Moravian Painted Pottery/ Lengyel Culture (MMK), and Bronze Age as well as the Medieval period.
The volume concludes with an assessment of the relation of Sopot-Bickse culture to Vinca and Butmir and the succeeding - perhaps invading - Lengyel culture.
The question of the emergence and the development of 'fortified' settlement sites in the Stichbandkeramik and Lengyel culture complexes in Central Europe is currently a subject of debate and doubtless, with a flood of new discoveries facilitated by the sudden outburst of aerial photography in this region (a 15-minute flight over Bylany last summer revealed a substantial rectangular enclosure close by, although its date is not yet known), will continue to be debated for some time to come.
Paleoecological characteristics of the settlement periods of the Linear Pottery and Lengyel cultures at Cracow-Nowa Huta (on the basis of plant material), Przeglad Archeologiczny 36: 55-87.