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Leningrad:see Saint PetersburgSaint Petersburg,
Rus. Sankt-Peterburg, city (1990 est. pop. 5,036,000), capital of the Leningrad region (although not administratively part of it) and the administrative center of the Northwestern federal district, NW European Russia, at
..... Click the link for more information. , Russia.
(founded May 16 , 1703; known as St. Petersburg until Aug. 18 , 1914, and as Petrograd from then until Jan. 26, 1924), an industrial, cultural, and scientific and educational center of the USSR and the country’s most important transportation junction and seaport. From 1712 to 1728 and from 1732 to 1918 the city was the national capital; from 1708 to 1927 it was the administrative center of a province. Since Aug. 1, 1927, it has been the administrative center of Leningrad Oblast of the RSFSR.
The cradle of the Great October Revolution, Leningrad is a hero-city. It is located in the western Neva lowland where the Neva River flows into the Gulf of Finland and on 42 islands of the branched Neva Delta, including Vasil’evskii, Petrogradskii, Krestovskii, Aptekarskii, Elagin, and Gutuevskii islands. Within the city there are more than 40 rivers, river branches, and channels and nearly 20 canals with a combined length of more than 160 km. Among these waterways are branches and channels of the Neva, including the Bol’shaia Neva, the Malaia Neva, the Bol’shaia Nevka, the Sredniaia Nevka, the Malaia Nevka, the Fontanka, the Karpovka, the Moika, and the Priazhka, as well as the Okhta, a tributary of the Neva, and the Obvodnyi, Griboedov, and Kriukov canals. Inside the city the Neva is 340–650 m wide and 14–23 m deep. A considerable part of the territory of Leningrad (for example, the islands of the Neva Delta, the wide coastal strip between the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Railroad, and the left bank of the Neva up to the Fontanka) is not more than 1.2–3 m above sea level. In these areas of the city there is a danger of floods, most of which are caused by the wind lashing the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. Catastrophic floods occurred on Nov. 7, 1824, when the water level was 3.75 m higher than normal, and on Sept. 23, 1924, when the water level was 3.69 m above normal. During the flood of 1924 nearly 70 sq km of the city was under water. Leningrad has a marine climate, with mild winters, a comparatively cool summer, variable temperatures, and cyclonic circulation. (Cyclones prevail on an average of 142 days a year.) The average January temperature is — 7.9°C, and the average July temperature, 17. 7°C. The average annual precipitation is 585 mm. The “white nights,” a phenomenon that occurs in Leningrad during the first half of the summer, is most striking between June 11 and July 2.
Leningrad proper has an area of 570 sq km, including 58 sq km of water. Including towns and settlements that are under the administration of the Lensovet (Leningrad Soviet), the city’s area is 1,350 sq km. The development of the suburban zone, which has a total area of about 15,000 sq km, is completely subordinate to the interests of the city. The suburbs and the city constitute a developing complex governed by a single plan. Within this territory an urban agglomeration (approximately 60 urban settlements) that is functionally linked with Leningrad has developed. Among the towns and settlements in the urban agglomeration are industrial satellites of Leningrad (for example, Kolpino), health resort towns such as Zelenogorsk, scientific centers such as Pulkovo, and towns with world-famous palaces and parks (for example, Petrodvorets, Pushkin, and Pavlovsk). As of Jan. 1, 1973, Leningrad had a population of 3,679,000 (1,614,000 in 1926; 3,015,000 in 1939; 2.9 million in 1959; and 3,513,000 in 1970). The population of greater Leningrad, which includes the urban settlements administered by the Lensovet, was 4,133,000 as of Jan. 1, 1973. The city is divided into 15 administrative districts. In addition, it incorporates six districts that lie beyond the city limits, including Kolpino, Krasnoe Selo, Kronstadt, Petrodvorets, Pushkin, and Sestroretsk.
History. The territory on which Leningrad is situated belonged to the Novgorodians in the ninth and tenth centuries. From the 13th century it was called Izhorskaia Zemlia. The ancient trade route “from the Varangians to the Greeks” passed along the Neva. In the 15th century the settlements of Izhora, which was part of the Vodskaia piatina (one of the five territorial and administrative areas of Novgorod the Great), were located on the future site of St. Petersburg. In 1478 these settlements were incorporated into the Russian centralized state. From the 12th century a number of foreign powers laid claim to the territory now occupied by Leningrad.
Defeated in the battle on the Neva (1240) and a number of other attempts (14th-16th centuries), at the beginning of the 17th century the Swedes took the banks of the Neva and built the fortress of Nienschanz (Kanzy) at the mouth of the Okhta River. During the Northern War (1700–21), Russian troops seized this fortress (May 1 , 1703). Below it along the Neva on Zaiachii Island, Peter I laid the foundation of the fortress of Sankt-Piter-Burkh on May 16 (27), 1703. (Later, this was known as the Peter and Paul Fortress). In the same year a port, a stock exchange, merchants’ quarters, and Peter I’s house were constructed on Petrogradskii Island (called Berezovyi Island at that time). During the winter of 1703–04 the fortress of Kronshlot (from 1723, Kronstadt) was established on Kotlin Island, and in 1704 the Admiralty Fortress was built on the left bank of the Neva.
With the founding of St. Petersburg, Russia opened a “window on Europe” and won its age-old struggle for an outlet to the Baltic Sea—a struggle that had been undertaken in the interests of the country’s economic and political development. The new capital, a planned city, was built rapidly. Russian and foreign architects were recruited for the project. However, the city owed its construction and development to the efforts of hundreds of thousands of soldiers and peasants from all over Russia. Thus, the creation of St. Petersburg was a historic accomplishment of the Russian people.
The new city gained importance as an industrial center. At first, brickyards, shipyards, and enterprises of the war industries were built. Soon after the Admiralty was completed, the new Admiralty was built (1713), as well as the Partikuliarnaia (1714), Okhta (1720), and Galernaia (1728) dockyards. The foundry (1711), tar yard (1714), ropework (1720), mint, and Krestovskii and Okhta (1714–15) powder mills were opened. Later, a sugar refinery, brewery, wax factory, and porcelain plant (1744; present-day M. V. Lomonosov Plant) were built, as well as linen, cotton, and cloth factories. By the end of the 18th century the city had more than 160 industrial enterprises, which relied, for the most part, on serf labor. The population grew rapidly: in 1725 it was approximately 40,000, in 1750, approximately 95,000, and in 1800, 220,000.
In 1712, St. Petersburg became the capital of Russia and the headquarters of the tsarist court, collegiums (from 1718; from 1802, the ministries), Senate (from 1713), and other government institutions, as well as of the guards regiments. St. Petersburg was the stronghold of the autocracy and the nobility, and later of the bourgeoisie, for more than 200 years. At the same time, however, it was the leading center for advanced learning and culture and the focal point for progressive thought and for the social and revolutionary movement. As early as the first quarter of the 18th century, scientific institutions and educational establishments were opened in St. Petersburg, and newspapers and journals were published in the city.
In the second half of the 18th century the first Russian representatives of the Enlightenment, including N. I. Novikov and la. P. Kozel’skii, denounced serfdom and autocracy. A. N. Radishchev, the first revolutionary from the nobility, published A Journey From St. Petersburg to Moscow (1790). In the first quarter of the 19th century the Decembrists, revolutionaries from the nobility, organized secret societies in St. Petersburg. On Oct. 16, 1820, an uprising of the soldiers of the Semenovskii Regiment broke out in the city, and on Dec. 14 (26), 1825, the Decembrist Uprising took place on Senate Square. The revolutionary democrats V. G. Belinskii, N. G. Chernyshevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, and D. I. Pisarev were active in the capital during the mid-19th century. In the 1840’s the Petrashevskii circle was organized. During the revolutionary period of 1859–61 the secret society Land and Liberty (Zemlia i volia) was active in the city, and in 1861–63 the first Russian revolutionary proclamations were issued there. St. Petersburg became one of the centers of revolutionary Populism (narodnichestvo) during the 1870’s. Chaikovskii’s followers did propaganda work among the city’s factory workers, and the “going to the people” movement originated in St. Petersburg. The second Land and Liberty group, which was founded in 1876, split in 1879 into two independent organizations, People’s Will (Narodnaia volia) and Black Repartition (Chernyi peredel). On Dec. 6, 1876, Russia’s first political demonstration took place in front of the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Under the revolutionary conditions of 1878–80, the executive committee of the People’s Will worked in the capital city, organizing a number of attempts on Alexander II’s life, including the explosion in the Winter Palace on Feb. 5, 1880, and the regicide of Mar. 1, 1881.
During the 19th century, industry continued to develop in the capital. New metalworking enterprises were established: in 1801, an iron foundry and metalworks were transferred to St. Petersburg from Kronstadt (known as the Putilov Plant from 1868, it is now the Kirov Plant), and in 1825 the Alexander Machinery Plant was founded. In prereform St. Petersburg textiles was the leading industry. After the Peasant Reform of 1861 the city’s economy began to develop rapidly toward capitalism. Many old factories and plants were considerably expanded and remodeled, and new enterprises were opened, including the Neva Shipbuilding and Machinery Plant (1860), the Nobel Machine-building Plant (1862), and the Obukhov Steelworks (1863). Metalworking became more important than the textiles industry, and new branches of industry developed, including the chemicals, paper, and wood products industries. The Warsaw, Northern, Baltic, and Finland railroads, which linked the capital with the country’s most important economic centers, were added to the network of railroads constructed during the prereform period (the St. Petersburg-Tsarskoe Selo line  and the St. Petersburg-Moscow line [1843–51]).
As early as the 18th century the first steps toward management of the city economy were taken. In 1803 fire brigades were organized. Wooden pavements were laid on Nevskii Prospect in 1832. Later, the quays and other streets were paved with cobblestones, and in the early 1870’s the first asphalt pavements were laid. In 1835 gas street lamps were installed. They were replaced in 1873 by electric lights. Running water became available in 1860.
Until the mid-19th century horse-drawn carriages (izvozchiki) were the main type of transportation. Public carriages covering specific routes made their first runs in 1847, and it was possible to travel to the suburbs by stagecoach. In 1848 steamers began to carry passengers along the Neva. The first tramline was built in 1905–07, and in 1907 buses were introduced. Telephone and telegraph services became available in St. Petersburg during the second half of the 19th century.
The city’s population rose from approximately 500,000 in 1853 to about 1.5 million in 1900 and 2.5 million in 1917. The working class grew particularly rapidly: in 1861, 20,000 workers were employed in enterprises in St. Petersburg; in 1890, almost 150,000; in 1900, 260,000; and in 1917, almost 500,000.
A great proportion of St. Petersburg’s working-class population (40 percent) consisted of metalworkers, the most self-conscious and the best organized members of the working class. In addition, production was highly concentrated. In 1914, 70 percent of the capital’s workers were employed in enterprises with more than 500 workers, whereas for Russia as a whole the figure was 56 percent. Thus, the St. Petersburg proletariat was guaranteed the role of the avant-garde in the Russian revolutionary movement. As early as the 1870’s about 90 strikes and disturbances broke out among the city’s workers. In 1878 the Northern Union of Russian Workers was founded in St. Petersburg by the workers V. Obnorskii and S. N. Khalturin. Its program included the demand for a political struggle. In the 1880’s the first Marxist organizations were founded in the city, including D. N. Blagoev’s group (1883), which was associated with the Emancipation of Labor group, P. G. Tochisskii’s Association of St. Petersburg Workers (1885), and M. I. Brusnev’s group (1889), all of which contributed to the development of the class consciousness of the St. Petersburg proletariat.
The leading role in the revolutionary movement passed to the working class in the mid-1890’s. The St. Petersburg Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, which was founded by Lenin in 1895, worked to unite socialism with the workers’ movement. Of greatest importance to the workers’ movement was the textile workers’ strike of 1896, which Lenin referred to as “an industrial war.” During the revolutionary upsurge of 1901–04 the Iskra group was active in the city. In the summer of 1902 the St. Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP was formed. The number of strikes increased. On May 7, 1901, striking workers from the Obukhov Plant clashed with police and troops, and in March 1902 workers participated in a large political demonstration on Nevskii Prospect.
St. Petersburg played a prominent role in the Revolution of 1905–07. The general strike of St. Petersburg workers at the beginning of January 1905, which was led by the St. Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP, was “the immediate prologue to the revolutionary events” (Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 9, p. 224). On Jan. 9, 1905, troops fired on a peaceful demonstration of workers who were marching toward the Winter Palace with a petition. This incident touched off the first bourgeois democratic revolution in Russia. In the scope of its strike movement St. Petersburg led the country. More than 1.1 million workers from the capital and its province participated in strikes in 1905–07, and in 1905 alone there were 1,861 strikes, involving 627,000 workers.
Together with Moscow, St. Petersburg was the center for the October All-Russian Political Strike of 1905, during which the St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers’ Deputies was formed. From November 1905 until the end of 1906, Lenin lived illegally in St. Petersburg, directing the work of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and of Novaia zhizn’, the first legal Bolshevik newspaper. The Military Organization, which was under the authority of the St. Petersburg Committee of Bolsheviks, was active in the fleet and the garrison. The workers of St. Petersburg went on strike in support of the 1905 and 1906 Kronstadt uprisings and the 1906 Sveaborg Uprising. In the elections to the Second State Duma (1907) electors recommended by the St. Petersburg committee of the RSDLP were elected to the workers’ electoral body.
The reactionary period that set in after the defeat of the Revolution of 1905–07 did not destroy the revolutionary determination of the workers. Under the leadership of the Bolsheviks the proletariat of the capital joined the struggle during the revolutionary upswing of 1910–14. The workers’ electoral body of St. Petersburg elected the Bolshevik A. E. Badaev to the Fourth State Duma in the autumn of 1912. The strike movement grew: in 1911, 11,000 workers went on strike; in 1912, 500,000; in 1913, 500,000; and during the first seven months of 1914, more than 700,000. The workers’ movement was aggressive and clearly political, as was demonstrated in the strikes protesting the 1912 shooting of workers in the Lena gold fields, the trial of the Sevastopol’ sailors, and the abolition of the right of the workers’ electoral body to elect deputies to the State Duma, as well as in a strike on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday. Lenin remarked that the St. Petersburg proletariat displayed “tremendous activity and, like a delicate barometer, reacted to all events of concern to the working-class movement” (Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25, p. 422).
The outbreak of World War I led to a brief ebb in the workers’ movement, but as early as 1915, St. Petersburg again became an arena for strike battles, with 130,000 workers participating in 125 strikes. In 1916 there were 352 strikes in Petrograd (27 percent of the national total), in which more than 300,000 workers participated (almost 38 percent of the national total).
Influenced by the revolutionary events and by Bolshevik propaganda, the soldiers joined the workers’ demonstrations. Between the end of 1916 and February 1917 the workers of Petrograd, led by the Bolsheviks, unleashed a powerful strike movement. On Feb. 25, 1917, the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP (Bolshevik) summoned the workers to an open struggle against the tsarist regime and called on the soldiers to enter into an alliance with the revolutionary workers. The strike became a general one on that day, and on the next it developed into an uprising. The Petrograd garrison came over to the side of the revolution. By the evening of February 27 the city was controlled by the insurgents. The entire country and the army supported the uprising in Petrograd. On March 2, Nicholas II renounced the throne.
From the first days after the victory of the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution of 1917, Petrograd was the seat of two bodies of power: the bourgeois Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies—the organ of the revolutionary democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry. From February to October 1917 all the most important events of nationwide significance took place in the capital. Lenin returned to the city from abroad on April 3 (16). The Seventh All-Russian Conference (April) of the RSDLP, which affirmed the Leninist program for the development of the revolution was held in Petrograd in April. Workers’ demonstrations in Petrograd caused the April and June 1917 crises in the Provisional Government. In June the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets was held in the capital. After the July Days of 1917 the peaceful period of the revolution came to an end, and the counterrevolutionary bourgeoisie seized complete control. The semilegal Sixth Congress of the RSDLP(B), which set the goal of an armed uprising for the party and the proletariat, took place in Petrograd from July 26 to August 3 (August 8–15).
Responding to the appeal made by the Bolshevik Party, in August 1917 Petrograd workers came out against the counterrevolutionary mutiny of General L. G. Kornilov. The suppression of the Kornilov Affair hastened the revolutionary mobilization of the masses and strengthened the soviets. By the beginning of September the Petrograd Soviet took a firm stand in favor of the Bolshevik position. On October 10 (23) a historic meeting of the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B) was held in Petrograd. Acting on Lenin’s report, the party adopted the resolution on an armed uprising. The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, which became the general staff for the uprising, was formed on October 12 (25).
In accordance with Lenin’s plan for an armed uprising, the revolutionary forces—the Red Guard and the revolutionary soldiers and sailors—led by the Bolsheviks, seized the most important government institutions and strategic points. On the night of October 25–26 (November 7–8) the Winter Palace was taken by storm, and the members of the bourgeois Provisional Government were arrested. The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets (October 26 [November 8]), which adopted the historic resolution on the transfer of all power in the center and the provinces to the soviets, as well as Lenin’s decrees on peace and land, established history’s first workers’ and peasants’ government— the Council of People’s Commissars, headed by Lenin. On October 31 (November 13) the revolutionary workers and soldiers routed Kerensky’s and Krasnov’s counterrevolutionary troops in a battle on the Pulkovo Hills, two days after a mutiny of Junkers was suppressed in Petrograd. The triumph of Soviet power throughout Russia followed the victory of the armed uprising in the capital. The workers of Petrograd took part in the struggle for the establishment of Soviet power throughout the country. Lenin highly valued the role played by the Petrograd workers in the victory of the October Revolution.
From Oct. 26 (Nov. 8), 1917, to Mar. 10, 1918, Petrograd was the capital of the Soviet state. The Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which adopted the Declaration on the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited People, was held in the city on Jan. 10–18 (23–31), 1918. In February 1918 the first regular units of the Red Army were formed in Petrograd. The Seventh Congress of the RCP(B), which approved Russia’s departure from the war and ratified the Brest Treaty of 1918, took place in Petrograd on Mar. 6–8, 1918. During the most critical periods of the Civil War and Foreign Intervention of 1918–20 the Central Committee of the RCP(B) and Lenin appealed directly to the Petrograd workers. Responding to Lenin’s letter “On the Famine,” 20,000 Petrograd workers organized in food detachments (prodotriady) left for the countryside in the spring of 1918. At the beginning of 1919, thousands of workers from the capital responded to Lenin’s appeal and went to the Eastern Front to join the struggle against Kolchak’s troops. Between April 1918 and April 1919, 170,000 Petrograd citizens left for all fronts of the Civil War. Communists and workers between the ages of 18 and 40 joined with units of the Red Army to put a halt to the offensive of troops led by General N. N. Iudenich in the spring and autumn of 1919. On Dec. 5, 1919, the Seventh All-Russian Congress of Soviets awarded to Petrograd the Order of the Red Banner in recognition of the heroism and self-sacrifice of its proletariat.
Overcoming tremendous difficulties, the Petrograd proletariat (88,000), led by members of party organizations (22,000), began to rebuild the capital’s factories and plants in 1920. With the participation of the workers of the city, the 1921 Kronstadt Anti-Soviet Rebellion, which was provoked by the imperialists and the White Guards, was suppressed. After Lenin’s death the Second Congress of Soviets of the USSR, acting at the request of the workers of Petrograd, renamed the city Leningrad. Almost 32,000 Leningrad workers joined the RCP(B) during the Leninist enrollment campaign of 1924. During the period of reconstruction (1921–25) the output of the city’s industries almost quadrupled. Participating in the fulfillment of the Leninist plan for the electrification of the country (GOELRO—the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia), the people of Leningrad helped to build and equip the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Plant, the first link in the Soviet hydroelectric power system. In addition, they produced the country’s first hydroelectric generators and turbines.
On about May 1, 1924, the Krasnyi Putilovets Plant completed the first tractor produced by Soviet industry. In the summer of 1925 the Karl Marx Plant mastered the production of wool-weaving machines, and in October 1925, the first Soviet timber-carrying ship was launched from the Baltic Shipyard. The people of Leningrad, led by party organizations, made an important contribution to the realization of the program for the industrialization of the country and for the collectivization of agriculture. (From 1926 to 1934, S. M. Kirov was the first secretary of the Leningrad Oblast Committee of the ACP[B].) In 1927 industrial output reached the 1913 level, and the output of the city’s electrical engineering industry was 3.5 times its prewar level and accounted for 64 percent of the industry’s national output. Leningrad became the country’s chief center for machine building and the arsenal of socialist industrialization. The city’s workers, especially the members of the Komsomol, were pioneers in mass socialist emulation, many forms of which originated in Leningrad. In 1928 the country’s first shock brigade (udarnaia brigada) was organized at the Ravenstvo Textile Factory. (At the end of 1929 there were more than 2,000 shock brigades in Leningrad.) On Mar. 5, 1929, the workers of the Krasnyi Vy-borzhets plant issued an appeal in Pravda to all enterprises in the USSR, calling on them to join the socialist emulation movement. In 1930 the staff of the K. Marx Machine-building Plant initiated counterplanning (vstrechnoe planirovanie). In 1931 the first profit-and-loss brigade (khozraschetnaia brigada) was organized at the Lenin Iron Foundry, and at the end of 1931 the people of Leningrad set up the country’s first technical, production, and financial plan (tekhpromfinplan).
The people of Leningrad participated in the construction and equipping of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Station, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsk metallurgical plants, and the Moscow Subway, as well as in the development of the “Second Baku” oil regions. In addition, they helped to launch the production of tractors in Kharkov, Stalingrad, and Cheliabinsk, of automobiles in Moscow and Gorky, of blooms in Kramatorsk and the Urals Machinery Plant, and of turbines in Kharkov. The city’s party organization sent more than 4,600 citizens of Leningrad to help establish kolkhozes. N. Smetanin, a worker at the Leningrad Skorokhod Factory, was among the founders of the Stakhanovite movement in light industry. In prewar Leningrad the construction of new factories and plants was as important as the reconstruction of old ones. Among the new plants were the Neva Chemicals Combine, a hydrolysis plant, the Komsomolskaia Pravda Technical Cloth Factory, factories producing synthetic fibers and artists’ paints, the Lenstankolit Plant, and the Il’ich Machine-tool Plant.
In 1940 the volume of production in Leningrad was 12.3 times that of 1913. The output of the city’s factories and plants in that year exceeded that of all prerevolutionary Russian industry. In 1940 alone, 235 new types of turbines, diesel engines, machinetools, complex instruments, and other articles were produced that had never before been manufactured in the country. (Between 1929 and 1941 more than 2,000 new goods were manufactured.)
By 1941 more than 800,000 workers were employed in enterprises in Leningrad. Owing to the technological remodeling of production, each worker’s output was, on the average, equal to that of four to five prerevolutionary workers.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the people of Leningrad, led by the party organizations, displayed exemplary courage and heroism. (A. A. Zhdanov was secretary of the Leningrad oblast and city committees of the ACP[B], and A. A. Kuznetsov was secretary of the city committee of the ACP[B] during the war.) By June 1941 the city’s party organizations included more than 153,000 Communists, and during the war more than 51,500 people were accepted as new party members. As many as 70 percent of the city’s Communists and 90 percent of its Komsomol members fought at the fronts.
On July 10, 1941, the Battle of Leningrad (1941–44) began. Under enemy fire about 500,000 citizens of Leningrad built defense lines. A total of 200,000 individuals joined the people’s home guard. By July, destroyer battalions (17,000 men) had been organized for the struggle aginst the diversionists. The city also had 35 battalions of the local antiaircraft defense (20,000 men). Citizens of Leningrad were among the members of the 200 partisan detachments and 125 underground party groups that carried out operations in temporarily occupied Leningrad Oblast.
From June to August, 70 major industrial enterprises, scientific research institutes, and higher educational institutions, more than two-thirds of the city’s most valuable industrial equipment, and many priceless cultural items were evacuated from Leningrad. The enterprises that remained in the city were converted to military purposes. During the war, industry began production of up to 200 new types of defense-related goods. Many combat ships, 2,000 tanks, 1,500 airplanes, and thousands of naval and field pieces were built and repaired, and 225,000 submachine guns, 12,000 mortars, and about 10 million shells and mines were produced.
On Sept. 4, 1941, the enemy began to shell Leningrad. Enemy aircraft made the first massive raid on September 8. On the same day the fascist German troops, having seized the town of Shlissel’burg, completely blockaded the city. The heroic defense of Leningrad lasted for 872 days. During this period the enemy hit the city with more than 5,000 high-explosive and 100,000 incendiary bombs and about 150,000 artillery shells. Enemy aircraft and artillery destroyed more than 3,000 buildings and damaged more than 7,000. From Sept. 12, 1941, the city received supplies across Lake Ladoga under enemy fire, but after November 16, when navigation became impossible, supplies could be carried only by the airplanes of the Civil Air Fleet. On Sept. 2, 1941, the food ration for the population was cut to a fourth of its previous level. It reached its lowest point between Nov. 20 and Dec. 25, 1941 (250 g of bread for workers and 125 g for white-collar workers, dependents, and children). As a result of the blockade 641,803 people died of starvation, and more than 17,000 died in the bombings and shellings.
During every day of the blockade the people of Leningrad were aware of the support and concern of the entire country. The Central Committee of the ACP(B), the State Defense Committee, and the Soviet government paid a great deal of attention to the besieged city. On November 22 a motor-vehicle road—the Road of Life (Doroga zhizni)—was opened across the ice on Lake Ladoga. The bread ration was doubled in February 1942. Between January and November 1942 almost 1 million of Leningrad’s citizens were evacuated on the Road of Life. In the summer of 1942 fuel was brought into the city through pipelines running across the bottom of Lake Ladoga, and in the autumn of 1942, Leningrad received electric current from the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station through an underwater cable. After the blockade was broken on Jan. 18, 1943, trains carrying foodstuffs, ammunition, and raw materials came to Leningrad over newly built tracks. Leningrad was completely freed from the blockade by Jan. 27, 1944, and the enemy was thrown back 65–100 km from the city.
On Dec. 22, 1942, a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established the medal For the Defense of Leningrad, which was awarded to almost 930,000 people. For courage and bravery shown in the blockade and struggle against the fascist invaders, Leningrad was awarded the Order of Lenin on Jan. 26, 1945. On the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Komsomol (1948) the Leningrad Komsomol Organization was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. S. M. Bogdanov, V. M. Golubev, V. N. Osipov, and E. P. Fedorov, native citizens of Leningrad, were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union twice.
The reconstruction of Leningrad began immediately after the blockade was lifted. On Mar. 29, 1944, the State Defense Committee adopted a resolution regarding immediate measures of assistance to Leningrad. In response to an appeal by the party organization a movement developed for the mastery of the building profession as a second trade. The citizens of Leningrad voluntarily contributed about 50 million hours of Sunday work to rebuild the city. By 1947 the working people had essentially restored the city to its prewar appearance. The city’s industries had regained their prewar level of production by 1949, and by the end of the fifth five-year plan (1955) industrial output was 2.3 times that of 1940. Under the Seven-Year Plan (1959–65), Leningrad’s industries turned out more than 6,000 new products. In September 1959, the Lenin, the world’s first atomic icebreaker, which was built at the Admiralty Plant with the assistance of 500 Soviet enterprises, was ready for tests at sea.
On June 21, 1957, in connection with the 250th anniversary of its founding, Leningrad was awarded its second Order of Lenin, and in commemoration of the historic date a medal entitled “In Memory of the 250th Anniversary of Leningrad” was established. In accordance with a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the hero-city was awarded the Golden Star. On the 50th anniversary of Soviet power on Nov. 4, 1967, Leningrad received the Order of the October Revolution.
In 1967 the output of Leningrad’s industries was 65.6 times that of 1913 and three times the total industrial output of prerevolutionary Russia. Under the eighth five-year plan (1966–70) the gross industrial output rose 35.3 percent. Putting into practice the resolutions of the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU, the people of Leningrad have been successfully carrying out the tasks set by the ninth five-year plan. Socialist emulation with the working people of Moscow, which has become a tradition, plays an important role in the labor achievements of Leningrad’s working people.
Economy. Leningrad occupies an exceptionally important place in the national economy of the USSR. As an industrial center it is second only to Moscow. In addition, Leningrad is a leading center of scientific and technical progress, a school for industrial personnel, and a supplier of the means for technically reequipping the branches of the national economy of the USSR.
INDUSTRY. In the postwar years industry was reconstructed on an ever-increasing scale. The most important trends included a continuous rise in the level of concentration of production, the intensification and perfection of specialization, the development of intrabranch and interbranch cooperation, and the continuous modernization of industrial equipment. The city’s role in mastering the most complex and, for the Soviet Union, the newest forms of production, has grown steadily. In 1966–70 alone, 2,649 new industrial products were manufactured. Owing to the continuous rise in the level of technical equipment in the city’s enterprises, the long-term growth in the volume of output of Leningrad’s industry can be attributed almost entirely to increased labor productivity. Leningrad produced 2.9 percent of the total value of the industrial output of the USSR in 1972. However, the city produces 25–100 percent of a number of industrial goods, including turbines, diesel engines, and electrical equipment.
The leading branch of industry is machine building, which accounts for almost 40 percent of the city’s industrial output. Of particular importance are shipbuilding, the manufacture of power machinery, instrument-making, and the electronics, radio-engineering, and machine-tool industries. Half of Leningrad’s workers are metalworkers. The city’s machine-building industry is characterized chiefly by the predominance and exceptional variety of complex branches and by a comparatively low consumption of metal (half of the average for the RSFSR).
Leningrad is one of the country’s leading centers for shipbuilding. At a number of shipyards, including the Baltic and the Admiralty, various types of vessels are built, including powerful tankers, refrigerator ships, and icebreakers. Among the machine-building enterprises whose products are well known are the S. M. Kirov Elektrosila, the Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Metalworks, the V. I. Lenin Nevsky Machine-building Plant, and Russkii Dizel’. A number of enterprises have mastered the production of steam turbines with capacities of 800,000 kW, hydraulic turbines with capacities of more than 500,000 kW, and gas turbines with capacities of 100,000 kW.
Some of the city’s most important enterprises are in the electrical-engineering, radio-engineering, and electronics industries, which produce high-voltage equipment, as well as goods for the electric vacuum industry. (Elektroapparat and Svetlana are among the most outstanding enterprises in these industries.) Diversified instrument-making is well developed. Of the enterprises in heavy machine building the largest are the Kirov Plant and the Izhora Plant (in Kolpino), both of which are old, remodeled plants. Leningrad is also known for its machine-tool industry and for the production of equipment for the knit goods, footwear, tobacco, printing, and other industries.
Approximately 6–7 percent of the city’s output is produced by the chemicals industry, which has mastered the production of many new goods, including various synthetic materials, tires, and technical rubber articles. Leningrad’s light industry and food-processing industry produce footwear, thread, knit goods, clothes made from chemical fibers, cigarettes, and many other products. Some of the enterprises in these branches of industry are among the country’s largest (for example, the Skorokhod and Krasnoe Znamia factories).
The fuel-energy economy of Leningrad and the surrounding area has been completely reconstructed. One of the most important developments in power engineering was the construction of electric power stations that use local energy resources, including peat, shale oil, and waterpower. The North-West Power System provides Leningrad with a centralized supply of electricity. Since the establishment of Soviet power a number of heat and electric power plants have been built inside the city limits. In 1973 an atomic electric power station with a capacity of 2 million kW was under construction near Leningrad, as was the Severnaia Heat and Electric Power Plant (500,000 kW). In addition, the city receives a large quantity of various fuels that are shipped from distant regions. For example, Donets, Kuznetsk, and Pechora coal, petroleum products from the Volga-Urals and other regions, and shale gas from Kokhtla-Iarve and Slantsy are brought to Leningrad. Natural gas from the Ukraine, the Komi ASSR, the Northern Caucasus, and Central Asia passes through the Moscow gas ring by means of the Serpukhov-Leningrad and Belousovo-Leningrad gas pipelines. In Leningrad’s fuel balance the proportion of fuel gas is rising continuously (30 percent in 1965 and 36 percent in 1970). Deliveries of gas increased from 1.8 billion cu m in 1960 to 7.2 billion cu m in 1972.
TRANSPORTATION. Leningrad is one of the USSR’s most important transportation centers. Its system has many functions. In terms of the turnover of goods, the railroads hold first place, river vessels second, and sea vessels third. Three times more goods arrive in the city than are shipped out, in terms of weight. Mineral building materials, timber, metals, coal, and food supplies are the main goods brought into the city. The chief goods shipped out are machines and articles produced by the chemicals industry, light industry, and some other branches of industry.
Twelve railroad lines radiate from the city: eight run south of the Neva River and four run north of it. All suburban railroad divisions are electrified. Leningrad, the terminus of the Volga-Baltic river system, is a major river port and a seaport of international importance. Motor vehicle highways run out of the city in 11 directions. At least a tenth of the passengers departing from the city are served by bus stations. Leningrad’s airport, which is second in importance to Moscow’s, dispatches airplanes in 60 directions every day and serves a total of more than 100,000 km of airways.
TRADE. There are approximately 3,500 food and manufactured goods stores in the city. In 1972 retail commodity circulation totaled 4.7 billion rubles, or 2.8 percent of the national figure. Between 1966 and 1970 the volume of the city’s retail commodity circulation rose 44 percent (food products, 30 percent, and manufactured goods, 65 percent). A substantial increase was recorded in the consumption of durable consumer goods, including refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and television sets. Between 1966 and 1970, 575 food and manufactured goods stores were opened, and 252 stores were made into self-service shops. In 1970, two of Leningrad’s largest self-service department stores, the Frunze and Kalinin stores, were opened. A third, the Vyborg, was opened in 1971. Each of the new stores has 4,000 sq m of floor space. As of 1971 there were more than 4,000 public catering enterprises in Leningrad, of which 411 were opened between 1966 and 1970.
MUNICIPAL ECONOMY. Nearly 4 million sq m of living space (a sixth of the living space in prerevolutionary St. Petersburg) was built in Leningrad during the 1920’s and 1930’s, but as a result of the siege, Leningrad lost up to 5 million sq m of living accommodations during the Great Patriotic War. From 1946 to 1955, 5.3 million sq m of living space was built, and from 1961 to 1970, 21.4 million sq m. From 1961 to 1972 alone, more than 40 percent of the city’s inhabitants moved into new apartments. By the beginning of 1973 the total living space was 51.3 million sq m, or 2.4 times the 1913 figure. High-rise apartment houses with better planned apartments are being erected, and large, new apartment-house developments have been built.
Since the establishment of Soviet power Leningrad’s municipal economy has been restructured. The capacity of the waterworks has been increased, and the gas and heating supply system has been improved. The water-supply network is 2,500 km long. In 1970, 99 percent of the living space was connected to the water-supply and sewage systems, as compared to 93 percent in 1940. Of the total living space, 98 percent was supplied with gas in 1970, as compared to 9 percent in 1940. The gas-supply system is about 2,000 km long. More than 5 billion cu m of gas per year are supplied to the city through its pipelines. In Leningrad, 98 percent of the apartments had central heating in 1970 (17 percent in 1940). Important measures are being taken to improve transportation within the city. The trolley lines, the first of which was built in 1936, total 356 km in length; the tramlines, 532 km; and the bus routes, 3,026 km. Between 1966 and 1970, 48 km of new tramlines and 143 km of trolley lines were laid, the length of the bus routes was increased by 531 km, and the length of the subway lines (opened in 1955) increased from 24 to 44.7 km; the number of subway stations rose from 18 to 27. The number of passengers using city transportation facilities increased from 263 million in 1965 to 418 million in 1970.
L. G. CHERTOV
Education, science, and culture, EDUCATION. After the founding of St. Petersburg a number of educational establishments for the training of specialists in various professions were organized, including the Naval School (1715), the Engineering School (1719), and the Artillery School (1721). Founded some what later, the Land Cadet School for the Nobility (1731), the Naval Cadet School for the Nobility, and other institutions were transformed in the second half of the 18th century into private boarding schools for children of the nobility and gentry. At the same time, the “institutes for wellborn girls”—the first private boarding schools for girls from noble and gentry families—were established. (For example, the Smol’nyi Institute was founded in 1764.) The Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum was opened in 1811, and in 1819 the University of St. Petersburg was founded. The first Russian higher technical education establishments were organized in St. Petersburg, including the Institute of the Corps of Transportation Engineers (1809), the Forest Institute (1803), the Technological Institute (1828), and the Institute of Mines (1866), which was an outgrowth of the School of Mines (1773).
The sociopolitical movement of the mid-19th century and the activity of the revolutionary democrats contributed to the development of popular education. Members of the progressive intelligentsia founded St. Petersburg’s first Sunday schools for adults. In the 1880’s and 1890’s there were about 40 Sunday schools, including the Smol’nyi School, a particularly popular establishment where N. K. Krupskaia taught and where V. I. Lenin met frequently with workers. In the academic year 1914–15 there were about 900 schools of general education, including 700 elementary schools. Secondary education remained the privilege of the propertied classes. In 1914–15 the enrollment in the city’s schools was about 140,000.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 illiteracy among the urban adult population was eliminated within a short time, and the goal of universal primary instruction became a reality. By 1931, all of Leningrad’s citizens were literate. In the school year 1940–41 the enrollment in the city’s secondary schools was eight times that of 1914. Between 1935 and 1940, 232 new school buildings were built, and laboratories and other modern teaching facilities were installed in old buildings. More than 300 school buildings were destroyed by artillery shells during the Great Patriotic War (1941–45). During the postwar period all of the city’s schools were modernized, and dozens of new ones were built. In the school year 1970–71 there were 584 day schools for general education (more than 415,000 pupils), 153 night schools for young working people (78,300 students), 102 professional and technical educational establishments (53,000 students), and 86 specialized secondary educational establishments (115,200 students). Among the city’s 41 higher educational institutions (272,400 students) are the A. A. Zhdanov Leningrad University, the Polytechnic Institute, the Institute of Mines, and a conservatory.
SCIENCE. Leningrad is one of the country’s most important scientific centers. The Academy of Sciences was founded in St. Petersburg in 1725. Among the outstanding scientists who lived and worked in the city were M. V. Lomonosov, S. P. Krasheninnikov, V. V. Petrov, I. F. Kruzenshtern, F. F. Bellingshausen, M. P. Lazarev, B. S. Iakobi, E. Kh. Lents, K. M. Ber, P. L. Shilling, A. S. Popov, D. I. Mendeleev, N. N. Zinin, N. I. Pirogov, S. P. Botkin, P. L. Chebyshev, and P. P. Iablochkov. As of 1973 there were more than 300 scientific research and project and design organizations in Leningrad. Many of them were created after the establishment of Soviet power but were outgrowths of Russia’s oldest research institutions. Associated with the city is the work of many prominent scientists, including V. A. Steklov, I. P. Pavlov, A. N. Krylov, V. I. Vernadskii, A. E. Fersman, S. V. Lebedev, V. L. Komarov, L. A. Orbeli, I. A. Orbeli, A. F. Ioffe, and V. M. Zhirmunskii.
Located in Leningrad are many institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (AN SSSR), including the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (founded in 1918), the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (1931), the Institute of Zoology (1931), the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology (1925; founded as a laboratory in 1864), and the Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House, 1905). The Central Astronomical Observatory of the AN SSSR is located near Leningrad in Pulkovo. After the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) academic institutes devoted to research in new fields of modern science were founded in Leningrad, including the Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (1948), the I. V. Grebenshchikov Institute of the Chemistry of Silicates (1948), the Institute of Cytology (1957), and the I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry (1956). Located in Leningrad are branches of a number of other institutes of the AN SSSR, whose headquarters are in other cities. In addition, the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, the Academy of Medical Sciences, and the K. D. Pamfilov Academy of Municipal Economy have branches, divisions, and institutes in the city. The Institute of Party History, which is attached to the Leningrad Oblast Committee of the CPSU and which is a branch of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, an establishment attached to the Central Committee of the CPSU, is located in Leningrad.
Among the branch institutes of the AN SSSR in Leningrad that have gained national and international recognition for their research and discoveries are the Central Scientific Research Institute for Diesel Engines (1930), the I. I. Polzunov Central Scientific Research Institute of Boilers and Turbines (1935), and the S. I. Vavilov State Optical Institute (1918). Established in 1934, the renowned D. I. Mendeleev All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Metrology developed out of Soviet institutions that took the place of the Main Administration of Weights and Measures, which was founded in 1893. Other famous branch institutes located in Leningrad are the S. V. Lebedev All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Synthetic Rubber (1945) and the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute (1920).
A number of medical institutions located in the city do extensive research, including the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (founded as a medical institution in 1797), the Scientific Research Institute for Experimental Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1890), the V. I. Bekhterev Scientific Research Institute for Psychoneurology (1908), the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute for Radiation Hygiene (1944), and the N. N. Petrov Leningrad Scientific Research Institute for Oncology (1926). In addition, the city is the headquarters of several all-Union scientific research institutes, all of which were founded in the 1930’s and all of which have made important contributions to the development of the agricultural sciences (the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Protection of Plants, the N. I. Vavilov Scientific Research Institute for Plant Growing, and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology).
Since the early 1970’s scientific-production associations, such as Elektrosila (Electric Power Association), Pozitron, Opticomekhanicheskoe (Optical Mechanics Association), Plastpolimer (Plastic Polymers Association), and Lenelektronmash (Leningrad Electronic Machines Association), have played a more important role in scientific research. Among the personnel of Leningrad’s scientific institutions, 2,800 hold doctoral degrees, and more than 20,000 are candidates of science.
CULTURE. Leningrad is one of the country’s major cultural centers. In the 18th century many major Russian writers lived and wrote in St. Petersburg, including F. Prokopovich, A. D. Kantemir, M. V. Lomonosov, D I. Fonvizin, G. R. Derzhavin, A. P. Sumarokov, A. N. Radishchev, N. I. Novikov, and I. A. Krylov. Many of the authors of the 19th-century classics of Russian literature worked in the city, including N. M. Karamzin, V. A. Zhukovskii, A. S. Pushkin, N. V. Gogol, M. Iu. Lermontov, I. A. Goncharov, I. S. Turgenev, N. A. Nekrasov, M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, F. M. Dostoevsky, and N. S. Leskov. The flowering of Russian literary criticism is associated with V. G. Belinskii, N. G. Chernyshevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, and D. I. Pisarev. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, M. Gorky and V. V. Mayakovsky, the founders of socialist realism in literature, worked in the city. Closely associated with Leningrad are the lives and literary careers of many Soviet writers, including A. A. Blok, D. Bednyi, S. A. Esenin, M. M. Prishvin, O. D. Forsh, A. A. Prokofev, A. A. Akhmatova, V. F. Panova, N. S. Tikhonov, K. A. Fedin, K. I. Chukovskii, and S. Ia. Marshak.
The St. Petersburg Academy of Arts (founded in 1757) was very important for the development of the fine arts. A. P. Losenko, who created paintings on historical themes, the portraitists D. G. Levitskii and V. L. Borovikovskii, and the sculptors F. I. Shubin and I. P. Martos were among the major 18th-century artists who worked in St. Petersburg. In the 19th century the portraitists O. A. Kiprenskii and K. P. Briullov worked in the city, as did P. A. Fedotov, the founder of critical realism in the fine arts, I. N. Kramskoi, the ideological leader and one of the founders of the peredvizhniki (the “wanderers,” a progressive art movement), and the graphic artist A. A. Agin. Most of I. E. Repin’s creative years were associated with St. Petersburg. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous artistic associations were created, including the World of Art (Mir iskusstva) movement, the most important representatives of which included A. N. Benois, M. V. Dobuzhinskii, B. M. Kustodiev, K. A. Somov, and N. K. Roerich. During the Soviet period the creative work of many artists has been associated with Leningrad. Among the most outstanding Leningrad artists of the period are the painters N. I. Al’tman, I. I. Brodskii, K. S. Petrov-Vodkin, and V. A. Serov, the graphic artists A. P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva, V. V. Lebedev, and A. F. Pakhomov, and the sculptors A. T. Matveev and V. V. Isaeva.
In 1756, Russia’s first permanent public theater was established in St. Petersburg, and a drama troupe began to develop there. Among the first actors in the troupe were F. G. Volkov and la. D. Shumskii. The playwright A. P. Sumarokov was the theater’s director. The Aleksandrinskii Theater was opened in 1832, and the Mikhailovskii, which was built for the use of foreign companies on tour, in 1833. The first opera and ballet companies were founded in the 18th century. In 1783 the Kamennyi Bolshoi Theater was opened, and in 1860, the Mariinskii. Among the greatest actors and actresses of the 19th and early 20th centuries were E. S. Semenova, V. A. Karatygin, A. E. Martynov, V. F. Komissarzhevskaia, K. A. Varlamov, and M. G. Savina. The most outstanding singers of the same period were F. P. Komissarzhevskii, E. A. Lavrovskaia, I. A. Mel’nikov, F. I. Stravinskii, and F. I. Chaliapin, and the finest ballet artists were A. P. Pavlova and T. P. Karsavina.
In 1862, Russia’s first conservatory was founded in St. Petersburg. Many outstanding 19th-century Russian composers worked in the capital, including M. I. Glinka, A. S. Dargomyzhskii, M. A. Balakirev, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, M. P. Mussorgsky, A. P. Borodin, C. A. Cui, A. K. Glazunov, and A. K. Liadov. The critic V. V. Stasov also lived and worked in St. Petersburg. During the Soviet period new theaters have been established, including the Bolshoi Drama Theater and the Malyi Opera House. Associated with Leningrad are the careers of the composer D. D. Shostakovich, the conductor E. A. Mravinskii, the actress E. P. Korchagina-Aleksandrovskaia, and the actors Iu. M. Iurev, N. K. Cherkasov, N. K. Simonov, Iu. V. Tolubeev, V. V. Merkur’ev, and A. F. Borisov. The directors N. V. Petrov, N. P. Akimov, L. S. Viv’en, and G. A. Tovstonogov, the singers S. P. Preobrazhenskaia and B. T. Shtokolov, and the ballet artists E. M. Liukom, E. P. Gerdt, G. S. Ulanova, N. M. Dudinskaia, K. M. Sergeev, and V. M. Chabukiani are also among the artists whose creative years are associated with Leningrad. Among the directors who have made films at the Lenfil’m studio (founded 1918) are G. N. Vasil’ev, S. D. Vasil’ev, S. A. Gerasimov, G. M. Kozintsev, L. Z. Trauberg, F. M. Ermler, and S. I. Iutkevich.
In 1973 many performing arts centers were open to the public, including the S. M. Kirov Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet, the A. S. Pushkin Leningrad Academic Drama Theater, the Malyi Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet (formerly the Malyi Opera House), the M. Gorky Bolshoi Academic Drama Theater, the Academic Theater of Comedy, the Lenin Komsomol Theater, the Lensovet Theater, and the Komissarzhevskaia’s Theater. Other cultural establishments include the Theater of Musical Comedy, the Theater for Young Audiences, the Theater of Drama and Comedy on Liteinyi Prospect, the Malyi Drama Theater, the Puppet Theater, the Bolshoi Puppet Theater, the Fairy-tale Puppet Theater (a touring company), the Philharmonic Society (Bolshoi and Malyi concert halls), the M. I. Glinka Academic Choir, the circus, and the Music Hall.
The first Russian public library was opened in 1814 in St. Petersburg. Originally called the Public Library, it is now the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, which is among the world’s largest libraries. The country’s oldest scientific library —the library of the AN SSSR—is located in Leningrad. In 1972 there were 2,380 libraries in the city, with combined holdings of 137.4 million items. Of the total number, 987 are libraries for general use.
Russia’s first museum—the Kunstkamer—was opened in St. Petersburg in 1719. In 1973 there were 47 museums in Leningrad. Among those specializing in the history of the Revolution the most important are the State Museum of the Great October Socialist Revolution (a branch of the Central Museum of the Revolution of the USSR), the Leningrad branch of the Central Museum of V. I. Lenin, and ten memorial museums devoted to the leader of the Revolution (eight museum-apartments in the city and two museums on the outskirts of the city). The Hermitage and the Russian Museum house rich collections of art. Of special interest are the Central Naval Museum, the State Museum of the History of Leningrad, which has branches at the Peter and Paul Fortress and the Oreshek Fortress, and the Museum of Urban Sculpture, which has a number of branches, including the Literatorskie Mostki (a section of the Volkov Cemetery where many distinguished writers are buried). Valuable scientific collections are housed in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology of the AN SSSR, the State Ethnological Museum of the Peoples of the USSR, the Museum of the Arctic and the Antarctic, the Museum of Zoology, the Botanical Museum, the Mining Museum, and the Literary Museum attached to the Institute of Russian Literature of the AN SSSR. Located in the town of Pushkin is the All-Union Museum of A. S. Pushkin. (The Pushkin Museum-apartment is located in Leningrad on the embankment along the Moika River.) Museums have been founded at a number of plants and factories, including the Kirov and Krasnyi Vyborzhets plants, the V. I. Lenin Nevsky Machine-building Plant, and Elektrosila.
In 1973 there were 362 clubs in Leningrad, the largest of which were the Lensovet Palace of Culture, the Vyborg Palace of Culture, and the Gorky Palace of Culture. There were 296 motion-picture projectors in the city in 1973.
The first printing house in St. Petersburg was founded in 1711. With the opening of its own printing house in 1727, the Academy of Sciences began to issue its own publications, as well as textbooks, scientific and scholarly works, literary works, the newspaper Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti (from 1728), and the first Russian journals— Primechaniia, a “commentary” on the Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti, and Kratkoe opisanie Kommentariev Akademii nauk. In the mid-18th century the first privately owned journals appeared, including A. P. Sumarokov’s Trudoli-ubivaia pchela (1759). The satiric journals Truten’ and Zhivopisets (1772–73), which were published by N. I. Novikov, Adskaia pochta (1769), published by F. A. Emin, and Pochta dukhov (1789) and Zritel’ (1792), published by I. A. Krylov, played an important role in the history of Russian sociopolitical thought. In the second half of the 18th century the first private printing houses were founded.
The upsurge in public activity associated with the Patriotic War of 1812 was manifested in such journals as Syn otechestva (published between 1812 and the Decembrist Uprising), Sorev-novatel’ prosveshcheniia i blagotvoreniia (1818–25), and Nevskii zritel’ (1820—21). After 1825 only a small number of publications, including A. A. Del’vig’s Literaturnaia gazeta (1830–31) and Sovremennik (founded by Pushkin in 1836), stood up against the reactionary journalism represented by Severnaia pchela and Syn otechestva.
In the first quarter of the 19th century the publishing firms of V. A. Plavilshchikov, I. V. Slenin, the Glazunovs, and A. P. Pliushkar were founded. A. F. Smirdin, a prominent St. Petersburg publisher of the 1830’s and 1840’s, played a significant role in the history of Russian publishing. When N. G. Chernyshevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, and M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin joined the staff of Sovremennik in the 1850’s and 1860’s, the journal became the rallying point for the revolutionary democracy. The journal Russkoe slovo (from 1860) and the satiric journal Iskra (1859–73) also supported the revolutionary democrats. In the second half of the 19th century the major capitalist publishing firms of M. O. Vol’f, A. F. Marks, and A. S. Suvorin were established in St. Petersburg. From the 1860’s, F. F. Pavlenkov used publishing as a means of enlightening and educating the literate public. After Sovremennik was suppressed in 1866, its traditions were perpetuated in the journals Otechestvennye zapiski (edited by N. A. Nekrasov from 1869 and subsequently by Saltykov-Shchedrin and G. Z. Eliseev) and Delo (1866–84). Prominent liberal bourgeois publications included la. M. Stasiulevich’s Vestnik Evropy (1866–1918). The journal Russkoe bogatstvo (1876–1918) was the most important of the Narodniks’ (Populists’) publications. Journals for family reading included Niva (1870–1917) and Rodina (1879–83). New newspapers were established, including Birzhevye vedomosti (1861–79), Novoe vremia (1868–1917), and Nedelia (1866–1901). At the turn of the century the Legal Marxists began to issue publications, including the journal Zhizn’ (1897–1901). The legal Bolshevik publications Nasha mysl’, Vpered, and Zerno emerged during the Revolution of 1905–07. The Bolshevik newspaper Zvezda was published from 1910 to 1912. On Apr. 22 (May 5), 1912, the first issue of Pravda, the Bolshevik daily, appeared.
The Literary and Publishing Section of the People’s Commissariat for Education and the Publishing House of the Petrograd Soviet (now known as Lenizdat), which were founded in December 1917 in Petrograd, were the first Soviet publishing houses. In 1918, Gorky organized the Vsemirnaia Literatura Publishing House. Among the cooperative publishing houses in Leningrad, the most important were Byloe (1917–25), Academia (1922–28; headquarters in Moscow from 1929), Vremia (1922–34), and the Leningrad Writers’ Publishing House (1927–38).
Today Leningrad is one of the USSR’s most important publishing and printing centers. Located in the city are more than 30 publishing houses (for example, the central publishing house Avrora, Gidrometeoizdat, Sudostroenie, the republic publishing house Khudozhnik RSFSR, and Lenizdat), as well as divisions of major publishing houses whose headquarters are in Moscow (Nauka, Khudozhestvennaia Literatura, Prosveshchenie, Det-skaia Literatura, and Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia, for example). Large printing enterprises, including the technical production association Pechatnyi Dvor (founded in 1827), the Volodarskii, Ivan Fedorov, and Evgeniia Sokolova printing plants, and the Factory of Offset Printing, are located in Leningrad.
Many oblast and city newspapers are published in Leningrad, including Leningradskaia pravda (since 1918), Smena (since 1919), Leninskie iskry (since 1924), Leningradskii rabochii (since 1951; until May 1973, known as Stroitel’nyi rabochii), and the evening city newspaper Vechernii Leningrad (since 1945). Numerous journals are published in the city: for example, the central literary artistic and sociopolitical journals Zvezda (since 1924), Neva (since 1955), and Avrora (since 1969) and the children’s journal Koster (since 1936). Leningrad has three radio and two television programs. Central Television’s programs are relayed from the city. Since 1972 local television has carried its own color programs.
Public health. From the day of its founding, St. Petersburg was one of Russia’s chief medical centers. The first army (1715) and admiralty (1717) hospitals were founded in the city, and at them schools for the training of physicians were established in 1733. In 1771 a maternity hospital was opened, and in 1779 the Obukhov Hospital was founded. The Academy of Medical Surgery, an outgrowth of the School for Medical Surgery, was established in 1798. (From 1881 it was known as the Military Medical Academy, and in 1935 it was named after S. M. Kirov.) New medical institutions were founded in the first half of the 19th century, including Russia’s first and the world’s third children’s hospital (1834).
However, the system of public health was, on the whole, insufficiently developed, and there were sharp disparities in the services available to various strata of the population. Around 1914 there were 92 hospital establishments with 19,900 beds (that is, 9.4 beds per 1,000 inhabitants), and there were only 2,900 physicians in all specialities, or one per 955 inhabitants. These figures are the mean indicators. The working class received almost no medical care, and in the outlying areas of the city there was only one physician per several thousand inhabitants. The city’s 18 maternity homes (540 places) could offer care to less than half of the women in childbirth. There were eight day nurseries with 498 places. Outpatient medical care was available in only 25 percent of the city’s factories and plants.
Soviet public health was established in Petrograd after the Great October Socialist Revolution. In 1940 there were 126 hospital establishments with 33,800 beds (that is, ten beds per 1,000 inhabitants), 131 prenatal care and children’s clinics, 303 day nurseries with 23,400 places, and 66 factory outpatient centers. The residents of the city were served by 11,000 physicians (one per 305 inhabitants).
During the Great Patriotic War, Leningrad’s public health system was badly damaged, but after the war the city’s medical institutions were completely rebuilt. By Jan. 1, 1973, there were 494 clinics, 218 pharmacies, and 337 nurseries with 30,400 openings. There were 154 hospital establishments with 48,700 beds (11.8 beds per 1,000 inhabitants), as well as 67 medical units and 335 shop centers providing medical care to the workers and office employees of the city’s industrial enterprises. In 1972 there were 29,500 practicing physicians in Leningrad (one per 140 inhabitants). In the same year more than 186 million rubles were spent on the city’s public health system (44 million rubles in 1940).
Located near Leningrad is the Leningrad health resort district. In 1973 there were 35 sanatoriums (in 1913, nine; in 1940, 23) with 8,000 places (in 1913, 430 places; in 1940, 3,500). Of the 35, 27 are children’s sanatoriums which can accommodate 4,500 patients. (In 1913 there were only four children’s sanatoriums with 120 places, and in 1940, 15 with 1,900 openings.) In 1973 there were 17 houses of rest with 6,000 places, as well as seven boardinghouses. (In 1913 there were no houses of rest; in 1940 there were 18 with accommodations for 4,900 visitors.) The area also has 400 Pioneer camps, forest schools, and other health institutions for children.
PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS. Russia’s first sports clubs (circles) were founded in 19th-century St. Petersburg, which was also the site of the country’s first major competitions in swimming (1834), rowing (1860), gymnastics (1863), figure skating (1865), weight lifting (1885), track and field (1888), soccer (1897), wrestling (1897), boxing (1898), and basketball (1906). In 1973 there were 1,600 physical culture groups with about 800,000 members, 76 clubs organized under the housing maintenance office (61,000 members), 43 sports clubs in higher educational establishments and enterprises, 68 sports schools for children and young people (36,600 pupils), and five schools for master sports skills. The clubs and sections of the All-Union Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navy had 225,400 members, and the touring sections had 116,000 members. In Leningrad there are 37 stadiums, 735 gymnasiums, more than 1,500 basketball and volleyball courts, more than 300 hockey rinks, about 100 figure-skating rinks, about 300 soccer fields, 78 ski centers, 17 indoor pools, ten rowing clubs, and three yacht clubs.
The city’s largest sports complexes are the S. M. Kirov Stadium (about 100,000 seats), the V. I. Lenin Stadium (the first in the USSR; built in 1924; 30,000 seats), and the Iubileinyi Palace of Sports (more than 6,000 seats). Among Leningrad’s sportsmen (1973) there are more than 5,800 masters of sport, 188 masters of the international class, 186 honored masters of sport, 71 honored trainers of the USSR, and 151 honored trainers of the RSFSR. Leningrad sportsmen have won 62 gold medals at the Olympic Games (1952–72), 136 medals in world championships and 178 medals in European championships (1946–72), and more than 1,800 medals in national competitions (1940–72). At the Spartakiads of the Peoples of the USSR (1956–71) the Leningrad team has won prizes in the various sports more than 40 times. In the USSR higher league team sports championships (basketball, water polo, volleyball, rugby, handball, soccer, and hockey) Leningrad fields 11 teams.
Leningrad, an international tourist center, is visited by hundreds of thousands of people from various countries every year.
Architecture and city planning. Leningrad is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It owes its unique quality to the majestic contours of its buildings, the strict layout of its straight streets, the landscaping of its parks and gardens, and the smooth surface of its rivers and canals, as well as to its architecturally sound embankments, its numerous bridges (363), its beautiful fences, its spacious squares, and its outstanding works of monumental sculpture. Leningrad was built according to a regular plan which took as its organizational basis the Neva and the Peter and Paul Fortress. The central part of the city developed southeast of the Neva along Nevsky and Voznesenskii (presentday Maiorova) prospects and Gorokhovaia (present-day Dzerzhinskii) Street, three principal roads that formed a “trident” fanning out from the Admiralty (1737 draft of the city’s plan; main architect P. M. Eropkin, assisted by M. G. Zemtsov and I. K. Korobov). Residences for the “distinguished,” the “well-to-do,” and the “lowly” (model plans by architects D. A. Trezzini and J. B. Le Blond) were built in a straight line along the streets, contributing to the regularity of the city’s appearance.
Vasil’evskii Island was originally chosen as the administrative-public center, and the buildings for the twelve collegiums were erected there between 1722 and 1734 according to plans drawn up by the architects Trezzini and T. Schwertfeger. (Today these buildings house the Leningrad State University.) The Kunstkammer (1718–34, architects G. J. Mattarnovi, N. F. Härbel, G. Chiaveri, and M. G. Zemtsov; rebuilt in 1754–58 by the architect S. I. Chevakinskii) and the palace of A. D. Men-shikov (1710–16, architects G. M. Fontana and G. Schädel) were also built on the island. However, as a result of the Admiralty’s increasing importance as an industrial center, as well as of the absence of bridges over the Neva and the difficulty in transporting building materials to Vasil’evskii Island, the greater part of the city developed on the left bank of the Neva. Palaces and private residences for the nobility were constructed, originally on the model of the homes for the “distinguished” in the Petrine baroque style (the Palace of Peter I in the Summer Garden) and later in the baroque style, which is represented by S. G. Stroganov’s palace (1752–54, architect B. F. Rastrelli; rebuilt by A. N. Voronikhin) and P. B. Sheremetev’s palace on the Fontanka (1750–55, architects S. I. Chevakinskii and F. S. Argunov). The Cathedral of the Peter and Paul Fortress and the Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas (1753–62; both by the architect S. I. Chevakinskii) are also in the baroque style. In 1769 a new city plan by the architect A. V. Kvasov was approved. It reinforced and developed ideas for a regular layout, which were the foundation for St. Petersburg’s subsequent development. In the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, splendid architectural ensembles were built around the broad expanses of water where the Neva divides into branches. They imparted to the center of St. Petersburg a brilliant originality and a majestic, monumental character. Among these ensembles are the complex of the Peter and Paul Fortress; the Strelka complex on Vasil’evskii Island, with the Stock Exchange building; the Palace and University embankments; Palace Square, with the Winter Palace, the Alexander Column, and the arch of the General Headquarters; and Decembrists’ Square, with the bronze monument to Peter I (the Bronze Horseman, 1768–78, unveiled in 1782; sculptor E. M. Falconet, assisted by M. A. Collot and F. G. Gordeev). Also important are the buildings of the Senate and Holy Synod (now the Central State Historical Archive of the USSR; 1829–34; architects C. I. Rossi and A. E. Staubert), the Cathedral of St. Isaac, the Nevsky Prospect ensemble (the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, with adjoining land), and Architect Rossi Street and Ostrovskii Square, with the A. S. Pushkin Leningrad Academic Drama Theater and the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library. Other major architectural ensembles are located on the Square of Arts (the building of the Russian Museum) and on the Field of Mars (the Marble Palace and the Pavlovskii Guards Regiment barracks), as well as at the Summer Garden and the Engineers’ Castle.
Out-of-town ensembles (now within the city limits) were also built, including the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, the Smol’nyi Convent, and the architectural-park ensemble of Elagin Island, including the Elagin Palace (1818–22; architect Rossi) and landscaped park.
Among the outstanding architectural monuments in the early classical style are the Academy of Arts (1764–88; architects A. F. Kokorinov and J. B. M. Vallin de la Mothe), the Gostinyi Dvor (merchants’ arcade; 1761–85; architects Rastrelli and Vallin de la Mothe), the New Holland Warehouses (1765–80; architects S. I. Chevakinskii and Vallin de la Mothe), the Tauride Palace (1783–89; architect I. E. Starov, assisted by F. I. Volkov), the horseshoe shaped Currency Bank (1783–90; architect G. Quarenghi), and the post office (1782–89; architect N. A. L’vov). Buildings in the Empire style include the Admiralty, the Institute of Mines (1806; architect A. N. Voronikhin), the Narva Gates (1833; architect V. P. Stasov), which are surmounted by a bronze chariot designed by sculptors P. K. Klodt and S. S. Pimenov, and the iron Moscow Gates (1834–38; architect V. P. Stasov). The Mariinskii Palace (1839–44; architect A. I. Shtakenshneider) is in the early eclectic style.
In the first half of the 19th century many bridges were built. The Neva was spanned by the Nikolaevskii Bridge (present-day Lieutenant Shmidt Bridge; 1842–50; engineer S. V. Kerbedz, architect A. P. Briullov; rebuilt), the Griboedov Canal by the Bankovskii and L’vinyi suspension bridges (1825–26; engineer G. Tretter; iron gryphons and lions designed by P. P. Sokolov), and the Fontanka by the Anichkov Bridge (1839–41; engineer A. N. Gotman; bronze group of youths breaking in horses, 1849–50, by the sculptor Klodt). The Zelenyi, Krasnyi, and Sinii bridges, as well as the Potseluev Bridge, were built across the Moika in the early 19th century (architect V. I. Geste), and the river was later spanned by the Bolshoi Koniushennyi, Malyi Koniushennyi, and Pevcheskii bridges (1828–40; engineer E. A. Adam).
In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th the city grew up spontaneously, without reference to any plan, as new types of buildings were built (profitable apartment buildings with many units, stations, banks, and hotels, for example). Badly planned industrial suburbs, with enterprises, railroad facilities, warehouses, and workers’ barracks, grew rapidly. Among the unusual buildings of this period are the Mariinskii Theater (S. M. Kirov Leningrad Theater of Opera and Ballet), which is in the eclectic style, and a number of “modern” structures, including the Azov-Don Commercial Bank (1907–09; architect F. I. Lidval’), the Astoriia Hotel (1910–14; architect F. I. Lidval’), the House of Books (1904–06; architect P. Iu. Susor), and the arcade on Liteinyi Prospect (1912–13; architect N. V. Vasil’ev). Also dating from this period are private residences in the neoclassical style (the Polovtsev residence, 1911–13, and the Abamelek-Lazarev residence, 1912–14, both by the architect I. A. Fomin) and numerous profitable apartment buildings on Kirov Prospect (numbers 26–28, 1911–13, architects L. Benois and J. J. Benois; number 35, 1914, architect A. E. Belogrud; and numbers 63–65, 1908, architect V. A. Shchuko).
Among the structures dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries are the granite embankments of the Neva, the University Embankment (1830’s; engineer E. A. Adam), which has a dock in front of the Academy of Arts building (1832–34; architect K. A. Ton), the Admiralty Embankment (1873–74; engineers V. M. Karlovich and S. S. Selianinov), and the Peter Embankment (1901–03; architect L. I. Novikov; engineer F. G. Zbrozhek). Others include the Liteinyi Bridge (1874–79; engineer A. E. Struve) and the Troitskii Bridge (present-day Kirov Bridge; 1897–1903; architects L. N. Benois, A. N. Pomerantsev, and G. I. Kotov).
There are many monuments dating from the 18th and 19th centuries, including the Rumiantsev Obelisk (marble and granite, 1798–99; architect V. F. Brenna) and monuments to A. V. Suvorov (bronze and granite, 1799–1801; sculptor A. I. Kozlovskii), Peter I (bronze and marble; sculptor B. K. Rastrelli), M. I. Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly (both in bronze and granite; 1837; sculptor B. I. Orlovskii; architect V. P. Stasov), Nicholas I (bronze, granite, porphyry, and marble, 1856–59; chief sculptor P. K. Klodt, architect A. A. Montferrand), and Catherine II (bronze and granite, 1862–73; sculptor M. O. Mikeshin; architect D. I. Grimm).
After the Great October Socialist Revolution construction in Leningrad conformed once again to a general city plan. In 1919 an architectural workshop was established under the jurisdiction of Council of the Municipal Economy (chief architect I. A. Fomin), and projects for the construction of a number of urban complexes were developed there. A division of planning headed by the architect L. A. Il’in was established in 1926 under the authority of the department of municipal economy of the Lensovet. Subsequently, it became the Architectural Planning Department of the Leningrad City Executive Committee. Reconstruction of the outlying districts beyond the Narva and Neva gates began. The first housing complexes for workers were built on Traktornaia Street and in the Serafimov section on Stachek Prospect (1925–27; architects A. S. Nikol’skii, A. I. Gegello, and G. A. Simonov), and the Palevskii Housing Development was constructed in the Volodarskii District (1925–27; architects A. I. Zazerskii and N. F. Rybin). In addition, the city’s first clubs (A. M. Gorky Palace of Culture; 1925–27; architects A. I. Gegello and D. L. Krichevskii) and treatment centers (a dispensary for textile workers; 1927–30; chief architect L. V. Rudnev) were constructed. In accordance with general plans drawn up in the 1930’s (1932–34 and 1935–36, chief architect L. A. Il’in; 1938–40, chief architect N. V. Baranov), the existing layout of the city was preserved, and new districts were created on vacant lands, including Malaia Okhta District (1936–41; architects G. A. Simonov and B. R. Rubanenko), Shchemilovka Prospect (1937–40; architects E. A. Levinson and I. I. Fomin), Avtovo Prospect (1936–41; architects A. A. Ol’ and S. M. Brovtsev), and Moscow Prospect (1937–40; architects A. I. Gegello, G. A. Simonov, V. V. Popov, and N. A. Trotskii). Large public buildings were erected, including the Kirov (1930–35; architect N. A. Trotskii), the Moscow (1930–35; chief architect I. I. Fomin), the Nevsky (1937–40; architects E. A. Levinson, I. I. Fomin, and G. E. Gedike), and the district soviet buildings. Also dating from this period are motion-picture theaters such as the Gigant (1934–36; architects A. I. Gegello and D. L. Krichevskii) and the Lenin Komsomol Theater (1939; architects V. P. Makashov and N. A. Miturich).
During the Great Patriotic War Leningrad was heavily damaged. Among the most badly hit of the city’s outstanding architectural monuments were the Admiralty, the Winter Palace, the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, and the Academy of Arts. After the war all of the city’s damaged buildings and structures were restored.
In solving the problems of restoration, reconstruction, and new construction general plans for the restoration and further development of Leningrad have treated the city as a unit (1945–48, chief architect N. V. Baranov; 1966, architects V. A. Kamenskii, A. I. Naumov, and G. N. Buldakov). The development of the historical center along the Neva and the shore of the Gulf of Finland (Vasil’evskii Island) has been taken into account. The city is surrounded by a wide ring of new mikroraions (neighborhood units in urban planning). Among its newly constructed districts are Novaia Derevnia (1946; architect N. V. Baranov), Primorskii Prospect (1946–51; chief architect N. V. Baranov), and Engels Prospect (1950–51; architects A. K. Barutchev and V. F. Belov). Stachek and Avtovo prospects (both by architects V. A. Kamenskii and S. G. Maiofis), Moscow Prospect (B. N. Zhuravlev and S. B. Speranskii), and Shchemilovka Prospect (E. A. Levinson and D. S. Gol’dgor) were completed in the 1950’s and 1960’s, and construction of N. I. Smirnova Prospect (architects N. M. Nazar’in and O. I. Gur’ev), Novoizmailovskii Prospect (Speranskii), and Thorez Prospect (L. L. Shreter) was completed. The Dachnoe, Poliu-strovo, and Kupchino housing developments were erected in the last 20 years, the Lenin Square ensemble was built, and the Victory Parks were opened.
Among the buildings and facilities completed in the 1960’s were the S. M. Kirov Stadium and several stations of the V. I. Lenin Subway, including Nevsky Prospect station (1963; architects S. G. Maiofis and A. K. Andreev; engineer B. D. Maksimov) and the Alexandr Nevsky Square station (1968; architects L. P. Lavrov, T. V. Shishkova, and V. G. Shishkov; engineer O. V. Greits). The television center was opened in 1962 (architects S. V. Speranskii, A. D. Kats, and V. S. Vasil’kovskii and engineer N. I. Diubov); the Theater for Young Audiences in 1962 (chief architect A. V. Zhuk; sculptors A. M. Ignat’ev and L. M. Khlopina; mosaics by A. A. Myl’nikov); the Oktiabr’ Motion-picture and Concert Hall in 1967 (architects V. A. Kamenskii, A. V. Zhuk, G. M. Vlanin, and Zh. M. Verzhbitskii); and the Iubileinyi Palace of Sports in 1967 (architects G. P. Morozov, I. P. Suslikov, A. Ia. Levkhan’ian, and F. N. Iakovlev; engineer A. P. Morozov). Many schools, hospitals, industrial buildings, and hotels have been constructed in the last ten years (for example, the Leningrad Hotel, 1970; chief architect S. B. Speranskii). Memorial complexes were built at the Piskarevskoe Cemetery (bronze and granite, 1960; architects A. V. Vasil’ev and E. A. Levinson; sculptors V. V. Isaeva and R. K. Taurit) and at the Serafimov Cemetery (1965; architect Ia. N. Lukin; sculptor R. K. Taurit).
Under Soviet power many monuments have been erected, including those dedicated to V. Volodarskii (bronze and granite, 1925; sculptors M. G. Manizer and L. V. Bleze-Manizer; architect V. A. Vitman) and to V. I. Lenin (in front of the Finland Station; bronze and granite, 1926; sculptor S. A. Evseev; architects V. A. Shchuko and V. G. Gel’freikh). Another monument to V. I. Lenin stands in front of the Smol’nyi building (bronze and granite, 1927; sculptor V. V. Kozlov). The granite stele Aurora was erected in 1937 (architect A. I. Gegello). There are also monuments to S. M. Kirov (bronze and granite, 1938; sculptor N. V. Tomskii; architect N. A. Trotskii), to A. S. Pushkin (bronze and granite, 1957; sculptor N. K. Anikushin; architect V. A. Petrov), and to V. I. Lenin (on Moscow Prospect; bronze and granite, 1970; sculptor M. K. Anikushin and architect V. A. Kamenskii). In memory of the heroic defense of Leningrad and the rout of the fascist German troops during the Battle of Leningrad (1941–44), the Green Belt of Glory, which includes numerous monuments, was built in the city’s outlying districts.
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Lenin, V. I. “Itogi vyborov v Peterburge.” Ibid., 5th ed., vol. 14.
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