aureus, including alpha-hemolysin and four additional leukocidins.
However, recent findings suggest that the concerted actions of several cytotoxins, including the bi-component leukocidins, also play important roles in staphylococcal pathogenesis.
staphylococcus protein A (a super antigen), leukocidins, and coagulase itself.
Otto's group to be a candidate factor for increased virulence, suggesting it to be more important than Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL).
Effects of Staphylococcus aureus leukocidins on inflammatory mediator release from human granulocytes.
In addition, 10 of 20 CA-MRSA isolates tested positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, which code for a known CA-SA virulence factor.
To the Editor: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), which carries genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), has become a major concern worldwide (1-3).
Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia.
Increased virulence in CA-MRSA has been attributed to the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and, most importantly, Panton-Valentine leukocidin
(PVL) (Table 3).
The CA-MRSA strains shared a type IV SCCmec cassette and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin
locus, whereas the distribution of the other toxin genes was quite specific to the strains from each continent.